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段落写作注意事项  

2015-11-12 23:12:21|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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How to write a paragraph?

1. The Structure of a Paragraph

 A paragraph is a group of related sentences developing one central idea, or expressing one unit of thought. It is a unit in itself and is also part of the larger whole—the essay.

A paragraph should be unified(统一的), coherent (连贯的)and well developed. It is unified when it has a single focus. It is coherent when all the sentences in it are related and lead logically to one another, and the choice is based on the content of the paragraph and the intention of the writer.

                          The Structure of a Paragraph

 

提出问题

Topic Sentence

                                   

  分析问题

Developing Sentence1

  分析问题

Developing Sentence2

  分析问题

Developing Sentence3…

                                   

解决问题

Concluding Sentence

 

  Please read and analyze the following paragraph.

The further development of human society is always followed by the damage to the nature. In order to achieve the economic development, most countries try to reach their goals at the expense of the environment. There is one popular saying that we should develop ourselves first, and then we try to save the environment, which has caused the pollution of all kinds. Thus, it’s time for mankind to take steps to stop polluting the nature for the following generations.

2. Some correction symbols:

frag—a group of words, not a sentence (破句/残句).

rs—run-on sentence (串句) .

e.g Rita decided to stop smoking, she didn’t want to die of lung cancer.

sp—spelling error    e.g   in the soialty ( in the society).

p—punctuation error   e.g  Lets go shopping. Let’s go shopping.

cap—capitalization    e.g  I learned the news from china daily.( … from China Daily )

tns—incorrect use of tense    e.g  They ‘ll finish it by the end of this month.( They ‘ll have finished it… ).

agr—subject doesn’t agree with verb    e.g   The only things I saw was snakes.

gr—grammar usage     e.g   The population here is bigger than it in my hometown.(.. than that in ..)

uncl pn—unclear pronoun   e.g   I was walking my dog when my friend cam over and he licked him.

awk—awkward wording  Wherever opportunity may be around you. (Wherever you are, opportunity may be around you.)

ww—wrong word    e.g  The job requires a person who maintains two foreign languages. (The job requires a person who knows/masters /commands two foreign languages.)

C.E.--- Chinese English  e.g You've got the opportunity to work in the company because the boss  appreciates you after he knows your ability and talent. (.. thinks highly of you..)

3. How to correct a passage.

Step 1  Focus on the structure and organization of the essay

A.    Check the topic----is it clear enough for you to understand?

B.     Check the structure--- is the organizational structure clear enough for you to follow?

C.     Check the development--- are there adequate supporting ideas? Does it have enough introduction, enough body or enough conclusion?

DCheck the concluding paragraph --- is there a restatement of the thesis and a summary of the main points in the concluding paragraph? Or is the conclusion convincing?

E.     Check the writing purpose---is what the reader perceive(理解) exactly what the writer means to say?

Step 2 Focus on the detailed aspects of the essay

A.      Check for sentences--- are there any sentences which are needed to be deleted(删除) or re-written to make the essay clearer. Is there variety in sentence type?

B.      Check for the grammatical errors or mistakes which make the essay difficult to understand. (tense, voice and subject-verb agreement and so on)

C.      Check for transitional words (过渡词)or sentences which are needed to make the essay more logical and smoother.

D.      Check the words or phrases--- are there words or phrases which are wrongly used? Are there collocations which may be incorrect because they are taken from Chinese (e.g. a big rain)?

E.       Check the mechanics of the essay---does the writer pay attention to the writing of title, margin(页边), indention(缩进)and syllabification (移行)?

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