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新视野大学英语读写教程第二册课文学习辅导  

2010-06-05 09:05:21|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 8  Section A  There’s a < xmlnamespace prefix ="st1" ns ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />Lot More to Life than a Job< xmlnamespace prefix ="o" ns ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />
. Objectives
1.Skills:
 1)reading: Distinguishing Between Facts and Opinions

 2)writing: A paragraph of Facts and Reasons

 3)listening: understanding the passages about meaningful life, listening for the main idea and the important details, learning to take notes while listening
4)speaking: talking about meaningful life

2.Vocabulary development:
1)words:
excess attribute emphasis recommend stimulate priority spin lighten frequent overwhelming tremendous rhythms

2)expressions:  to hold little value ,to be at a low, to be way up, to tremble to think , to have the insight, to have a perspective on , beyond the confines of to,  prepare the way for to distinguish from …,  to answer one’s cries for

3. Patterns

1. It has often / always been remarked (said) that the saddest (the most pleasing) thing about sth. is that…

人们常常说:对于某事而言,最令人悲伤/ 高兴的事情莫过于 ……

2. According to the survey based on responses from, sb. / sth. is morethan at any time in…

根据以……的答卷为基础的调查,某人/某事比……任何时候都更……

3. While it is true (that)…, it is equally true that….

虽然的确是但同样确实的是….

1. Pre-reading

1. 1 Background information

Humanities (人文科学)

 

In the context of the reading passage, humanities refers to a broad academic discipline. It includes such areas of study as Philosophy, Literature, Religion, Art, etc. humanities programs at U.S. universities are most often housed in the College of Liberal Arts.

在本文中指广义的人文学科,包括哲学\文学\宗教\艺术等。在美国的大学里,人文学科常包含在文理学院内。

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Associate degree (准学士学位)

 

Associate degree is awarded to a student after he or she finishes a 2-year study at a junior college in the U.S. 美国学生在读完两年制职业专科学校时会被授予准学士学位

 

 

Education in the United Stated (美国的学校制度)

 

It is usually divided into 4 levels: kindergarten / pre-school, elementary, secondary, and higher education. The first is early childhood education, which is to prepare children for school. The second is elementary education, being divided into 6 or 8 grades. The third level is secondary education for junior or senior high school students. Some prepare themselves to go to college, while others take vocational / technical courses to prepare for jobs after graduation. There are many institutions of higher education in the U.S. Students at technical institutes can receive an associate degree after a 2-year program, then they can continue their study at a 4-year college.

美国学校分学龄前,小学,\高中,和高等教育四个程度。学龄前教育为孩子们上学做准备;小学分六至八个年级;在初\高中阶段,部分学生为上大学做准备,部分学习职业\技术课程以便毕业后工作;美国高等教育形式多样,职业技术学院的学生学完两年课程获得准学士学位,然后可继续四年制本科学习。

                                             

Social Security (社会保障制度)

 

It is the U.S. government system of benefit payments, especially to retired and disabled people and survivors. The web site at http://www.howstuffworks.com/social-security-number.htm explains how the system works in the U.S. The official web site for the Social Security Administration in the U.S. is located at http://www.ssa.gov.

这是美国政府针对退休人员\残疾人和灾害幸存者的津贴制度。欲了解美国该制度如何运作,请访问网址http://www.howstuffworks.com/social-security-number.htm 。美国社会保障制度的网址是:http://www.ssa.gov

 

 

 

Oscar Wilde (奥斯卡?王尔德)

 

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), the son of an eminent Dublin surgeon, was among the outstanding Victorian dramatists. He is renowned for a brilliant series of domestic comedies—Lady Windermere’s Fan (1892), A Woman of No Importance (1893), and An Ideal Husband (1894).

奥斯卡?王尔德(1854-1900)(著名的都柏林外科医生的儿子)是杰出的维多利亚时期的剧作家之一。他以一系列家庭轻喜剧温夫人的扇子》\《小妇人》和《理想丈夫》而闻名

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1. 2 Topic-related listening/video

 

2. While-reading

2. 1 Global reading

2. 1. 1 Understanding the major details of the text

1) How do young students and older teachers see the role of education differently?

On the one hand, most students only want to learn what is needed for immediate career success. So they think the key role of education is to prepare them well for a prosperous career, which may guarantee them a financially comfortable life. But, on the other hand, older teachers, with longer and richer life experiences, believe that the quality of life is not entirely determined by a balance sheet (资产负债表), and that people can lead better lives if they can see beyond their immediate needs.

2) What is “quality of life” and how can it be improved?

When talking about quality of life, people would naturally associate it with being financially well off. But the truth is that quality of life is not entirely decided by our financial status. More importantly, we also want to feel that we have an understanding of the world outside our career, for human beings have collected a great deal of knowledge in many different fields, and people can lead better lives if they understand these things.

 

3) According to the writer, what must educators prepare students for?

It is a fact that the meaning of life does not dawn upon young people easily, so schools must help students gain an insight into the outside world beyond their occupation. According to the author, educators must answer students’ cries for career education but at the same time prepare students for something much more important than a job.

2. 1. 2 Understanding the organization of the text

1) Main idea of the text

Should schools simply prepare students for a job, or is there more to life? This is the central issue being discussed in the passage. A survey revealing young people’s attitudes to life reminds the author of his regret, and makes him reflect upon the whole educational system. In fact,

educators should not only satisfy students’ desire for career success, but also help them form right outlook on life and see beyond their immediate needs.

2) Division of the text

Part I (Paras. 1-9)

Today’s young people have some mistaken ideas towards life: they just want to be financially well off instead of developing a meaningful philosophy of life.

Part II (Paras. 10-17)

What is truly important in life? The quality of life is not determined by a balance sheet. People need to have deep insight into life and to develop moral sense.

Part III (Paras. 18-19)

According to Oscar Wilder, the principle of education is to give our ability to work and genius to life. Therefore, educators must prepare students both for a career and a meaningful life.

2. 2 Detailed reading

2. 2. 1 Words and Phrases

1) hold little value (L. 7)

if it (whatever it may be) wont compute and you cant drink it, smoke it or spend it, then “it” holds little value.  (L6-7)

学生们认为如果某种东西 (不管它是何物) 没有实际的经济意义,你不能把它当酒喝、当烟抽、当钱花,那么简直毫无价值

If a person always thinks of and lives for himself, then his life holds little value.

如果一个人总是想着自己,为自己活着,那么他的人生就毫无价值(几乎没有什么价值)

他的意见没有多大价值,一经提出就被否决了。

His idea held little value, so it was rejected as soon as it was brought forth.

调查结果显示:一些学生认为,如果某种东西不能用钱来计算,那么它就毫无价值。

The survey shows that some students believe that if something cannot be calculated in terms of money it is of little value.

2) be well off (L. 11)

Not surprising in these hard times, the students’ major objective “is to be financially well off.

在这些经济不景气的年代,学生们的主要目标是想在经济上富裕一点。

In the present society, some people have tried every means to get financially well off, but they are spiritually poor.

在当今社会,一些人千方百计在经济上富裕,而他们的精神世界却是贫穷的。(a. be wealthy)

You don’t need to look for another job—________________(你现在的经济情况相当不错).

you’re well off where you are

This is the best way of getting help to those families ______________(不太富裕的).

who are less well off

Having inherited a large sum of money from his wealthy uncle, he is now better off than before.

从有钱的叔叔那儿继承了一大笔钱之后,他现在更加富裕了。(be well of 的比较级)

3) accordingly (L.12)

Accordingly, today the most popular course is not literature or history but accounting.

因此,如今最受欢迎的课程不是文学或历史,而是会计学。

They asked him to leave the company, and accordingly he stopped working there:

他们要求他离开公司,因此他已不再在那儿干了。(ad. so)

I’ve told you what the situation is; you must act accordingly.

我已经向你说明了情况,你必须照此办理/按照所说的做

 

I was lost and ______________(所以我买了张地图) which helped me out.

accordingly I bought a map

Our culture is very different from yours, and _________(因此,我们用不同的方式处理相同的事情).

accordingly, we deal with the same matters in different ways

4) specialization ( L. 30)

In a time of increasing specialization, a time when 90 percent of all the scientists who have ever lived are currently alive, more than ever, we need to know what is truly important in life.

在一个日益专业化的时代,在一个本时代所有科学家的90%现在都还健在的时代里,我们比过去任何时候更需了解什么是生活中真正重要的东西。

In the course I’m taking, there’s no opportunity for specialization until the final year.

我正在学的课程要到最后一学年才进入专业课学习。(n. 专业课)

The lawyer said that he was unable to help us because ____________(我们的案子超出了他的专业范围).

our case fell outside his specialization

As a college student, you should aim for an expansion of ___________(专业之外的知识).

knowledge well beyond your area of specialization

The 12-year-old boy’s goal is to _________(专攻西方史).specialize in western history in the future

After she qualified as a lawyer, she decided to specialize in business law.

在取得律师资格后,她决定专攻商法。

5) be meant to do (L. 34)

Most people, somewhere between the ages of 30 and 50, finally arrive at the inevitable conclusion that they were meant to do more than serve a corporation, a government agency, or whatever.

大多数年龄约在3050岁之间的人都会最终得出一个必然的结论,即他们不应该仅仅是为某个公司、某个政府机构或任何其他单位服务。

School education is not just meant to help students acquire knowledge from textbooks but to develop their all-around abilities as well.

学校教育不应该只是帮助学生学习书本知识,还应该培养他们的综合能力。 (=be supposed to do sth )

In the United States, people ______________(每个月都得缴纳所得税), which guarantee them to enjoy certain kinds of benefits provided by the government.

are meant to pay income tax every month

If you want to work out at the school fitness-center, you _____________(得交费后方能进入).

are meant to pay before you come in

6) confine ( L. 38)

Sure, everyone wants to be financially comfortable, but we also want to feel we have a perspective on the world beyond the confines of our occupation; we want to be able to render service to our fellow man and to our God

诚然,每个人都想在经济上富裕点。但是我们还希望能感受到自己对职业范围以外的世界是有着透彻的理解的;我们希望能为我们的同胞和上帝效劳。

beyond the confines of human knowledge          超出人类知识的范围   (n. limitations)

within the confines of campus life                在校园生活的范围内

____________(生活面太窄) in a religious job proved too difficult for him.

The narrow confines of life

You are asked to ________________(电话只用于公事).

confine your use of telephone to business calls alone  (v. limit)

他妈妈周末把他限制在家中,因为两周后他就要参加期末考试了。

His mother confined him to his room for the weekend because he was going to have a final exam in tow weeks.

7) render (L. 39)

Sure, everyone wants to be financially comfortable, but we also want to feel we have a perspective on the world beyond the confines of our occupation; we want to be able to render service to our fellow man and to our God.

诚然,每个人都想在经济上富裕点。但是我们还希望能感受到自己对职业范围以外的世界是有着透彻的理解的;我们希望能为我们的同胞和上帝效劳。

Render good for evil.

以德抱怨。 (v. give, produce)

I refused his request in terms that rendered it impossible for him to address me on this issue again.

我用使他不可能再就这个问题跟我谈话的方式拒绝了他的要求。(v. make)

The staff _________(提供了一流的服务) and all the guests were quite satisfied.

rendered first-class service

As well as some advice, he gave me a certain amount of money to start a small business. So now I want to_____________(用我积累的财富帮助别人).

render help to others with money I've accumulated

8) preferably (L. 44)

While it’s true all of us need a career, preferably a prosperous one, it is equally true that our civilization has collected an incredible amount of knowledge in fields far removed from our own.

虽然我们所有人都确实需要一份工作, 最好是一份薪水丰厚的工作,但同样确实的是我们的文明已经在远远超越我们各自业务的领域里积累了数量惊人的知识。

They want to buy a new house, near the sea preferably.

他们想要买一所新房子,最好是离海近些的。ad. desirably above anything else

I can meet you at any time tomorrow, but _____________(最好是上午11点以后).

preferably not before 11 o’clock in the morning

A day with friends is always _______________(好过一个人呆在家里) and doing nothing.

preferable to staying at home alone  (be more desirable (than))

You must either choose foods with fewer calories, or you must increase your physical activity, preferably both.

你或是选择低卡路里食物,或是增加锻炼,最好两者结合。

9) incredible (L. 45)

While it’s true all of us need a career, preferably a prosperous one, it is equally true that our civilization has collected an incredible amount of knowledge in fields far removed from our own.

虽然我们所有人都确实需要一份工作, 最好是一份薪水丰厚的工作,但同样确实的是我们的文明已经在远远超越我们各自业务的领域里积累了数量惊人的知识。

How incredible! The male student who seldom attends class has got the highest mark this time.

这真令人难以置信!那个几乎从来不来上课的男生这次居然得了最高分。(a. too strange to be believed)

He _________(表现了令人难以置信的勇气和决心) in coming back from his injuries to compete again at the international level.

showed incredible courage and determination

真令人难以置信,那个人没有任何理由地杀害了五个可爱的小女孩。

It is incredible that the man killed five lovely little girls without giving any reason.

10) in the long run (L. 51)

No company, no job. How shortsighted in the long run.

没有了公司,也就没有了工作岗位。从长远角度来看,他们的目光是何等的短浅!

 

Microsoft's head start will give them the market share lead through 2007, but Sony will win in the long run with almost 60 percent of the market by 2012.

微软的良好开端会使他们在2007年始终领先市场份额,但从长期来看,2012年索尼将以60%的市场份额胜出。

妈妈总是跟我说将来我定会为自己没有放弃弹钢琴而高兴的。

My mother always told me that in the long run I would be glad I didn’t give up the piano.

11) distinguish (L56)

“Miss Baxter,” he says, “could you please send in someone who can distinguish right from wrong?”

巴克斯特小姐,他说: “是否可以请您叫一个能明辨是非的人来?

Can you distinguish between the Carlson's twins? They are so similar it's often difficult to distinguish one from the other.

你能分清卡尔森家的那对双胞胎吗?他俩长得太像了,有时候真的很难分清谁是谁。

 

It is very important to distinguish between facts and opinions in order to have a better understanding of what the reading passage means.

判断真假珍珠的最好办法是什么?

What is the best way to distinguish from/between genuine pearls and fake pearls?

If only I hadn't said those silly words! I was _____________(太年轻,不能分辨是非).

too young then to distinguish right from wrong

2. 2. 2 Sentence patterns

1) 原句:It has often been remarked that the saddest thing about youth is that it is wasted on the young. (L. 1)

人们常说:对于青春来说最令人悲伤的事情莫过于青春在年轻时被浪费掉了。

句型提炼:

It has often / always been remarked (said) that the saddest (the most pleasing) thing about sth. is that…

人们常常说:对于某事而言,最令人悲伤/ 高兴的事情莫过于 ……

 

应用:

It has often been remarked that the most essential thing about life is that ___________(在事业上有所成就).you can make some achievements in your career

人们常常说:对于婚姻而言,最浪漫的事情莫过于它是由两个相互忠贞不渝的人组成。

It has often been remarked that the most romantic thing about marriage is that it is made up of two people who remain faithful to each other.

2) 原句:According to the survey based on responses from over 188,000 students, today’s college beginners are “more consumeristic and less idealistic ” than at any time in the seventeen years of the poll.   L. 8

根据以188000多名学生的答卷为基础的调查,当今的大学生比这项民意调查开始以来的17年中的任何时候的大学生更主张消费,但少了点理想

 

句型提炼:

According to the survey based on responses from, sb. / sth. is morethan at any time in…

根据以……的答卷为基础的调查,某人/某事……任何时候都更……

 

应用:

根据对2,360位来自10所高校的学生所进行的调查,今天的大学生在情感和心理方面比20世纪70年代任何时期的大学生都更加脆弱。

According to the survey conducted among 2,360 college students from ten different universities and colleges, today’s college students are more vulnerable both emotionally and psychologically than at any time in 1970’s.

According to the survey based on responses from parents, today’s middle-school students ________________(20世纪80年代任何时期的中学生压力都更大).

are under greater pressure than at any time in 1980’s

 

3) 原句:While it is true all of us need a career, preferably a prosperous one, it is equally true that our civilization has collected an incredible amount of knowledge in fields far removed from our own. (L.44)

虽然我们所有人都确实需要一份工作,最好是一份薪水丰厚的工作,但同样确实的是我们的文明已经在远远超越我们各自业务的领域里积累了数量惊人的知识

句型提炼:

While it is true (that)…, it is equally true that….

虽然的确是但同样确实的是….

应用:

虽然我们都确实需要进高校深造,最好是一所名牌大学,但同样确实的是我们也应该在社会实践中锻炼自己的能力。

While it is true (that) all of us need to further study at colleges, preferably a famous one, it is equally true that we should improve our capability by joining in social activities.

尽管衣服纯粹服务于一种实用目的,但你的着装方式也会传递很多东西,如你的社会地位、思想状况,甚至你的渴望和梦想。

While it is true that clothing serves a purely practical function, it is equally true that how you dress also communicates many things about your social status, state of mind and even your aspirations and dreams.

Or While it is true that the purpose of wearing clothes is simply practical, it is equally true that he way you dress also sends information / messages about your position in society, about how you feel and think, even about your strong desires and dreams to do or be something.

2. 3 Guided writing

A paragraph of Facts and Reasons

One writing technique for an essay or piece of argumentation is to support an argumentation or focus point with facts or reasons.

Paragraphs 5-7 and paragraphs 14-16 are very good examples of this kind of structure or writing method.

       Not surprising in these hard times, the students’ major objective “is to be financially well off. Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.” Accordingly, today the most popular course is not literature or history but accounting.

       Interest in teaching, social service and the humanities is at a low, along with ethnic and women’s studies. On the other hand, enrollment in business programs, engineering and computer science is way up.

       That’s no surprise either. A friend of mine (a sales representative for a chemical company) was making twice the salary of college instructors during her first year on the job---even before she completed her two-year associate degree. (Paras 5-7, Unit 8-A, Book I)

 

The main part of Paragraph 5 puts forward an argument: Developing a meaningful philosophy of life is less important than ever.

                                                       

                                                                                              

Facts to support the argument:

Accordingly, today the most popular course is not literature or history but accounting.

Interest in teaching, social service and the humanities is at a low, along with ethnic and women’s studies. On the other hand, enrollment in business programs, engineering and computer science is way up.

Fact to support the argument:

A friend of mine (a sales representative for a chemical company) was making twice the salary of college instructors during her first year on the job---even before she completed her two---year associate degree.

 

Here are some points for your attention while writing a paragraph of facts and reasons:

       1) Write your thesis clearly at the beginning of the essay. The thesis is your statement of purpose and it will serve to guide you in writing the whole paragraph.

       2) Give facts or reasons to support your thesis. The facts or reasons should be closely related to and fully support your thesis and be arranged in order of importance or relevance to the thesis.

       3) By tying together what has been discussed, conclude your paragraph with a restatement of he thesis or a forceful sentence that helps to drive your thesis home.

 

 

The Structure of a Paragraph

 

Topic Sentence

                                    

    Fact 1

    Fact 2

    Fact 3

                                   

Concluding Sentence

 

Words and phrases to be used for facts or reasons:

       1) first, second, third, … last;

       2) firstly, secondly, thirdly, … finally;

       3) to begin with / to start with / in the first place, then, next, in addition (to), besides, also, moreover, furthermore, what is more, finally.

 

Practice:

Write a paragraph of facts and reasons based on the topic and outline given below.

       Main idea: Job burnout has several causes.

       Facts and reasons: successful workers may be given more to do; conflicting demands (expectations in the workplace / at home); certain occupations entail a high risk of burnout (long hours, heavy case, few rewards, ect.)

 

Reference model:

       Job burnout has several causes. First of all, successful workers may be given more to do just because they do their jobs well. Soon they become overloaded and must work even harder just to keep up with the pace. The workload becomes impossible, and exhaustion sets in. Another cause of burnout is conflicting demands. Many career women, for example, find themselves trapped between one set of expectations in the workplace and another at home. They are expected to perform competently for eight hours a day and then come home to cook a gourmet (美食家) meal or help a child or spouse with a problem. Finally, certain occupations entail a high risk of burnout. People in the service professions, such as nurses, social workers, and teachers, begin their careers filled with idealism and commitment. But the long hours, heavy caseloads or enrollments, and miles of red tape (官样文章;官僚的形式主义) become overwhelming, and the rewards---the few people they can help---are all too few. As a result, burnout for these people is almost inevitable.

3. Post-reading

3. 1 Useful expressions

1. 回忆/想起惋惜之情?                   to recall the regret  (L. 3)

2. 毫无价值?                            to hold little value (L. 7)

3. 培养一种有意义的人生哲学              develop a meaningful philosophy of life (L.12)

4. 处于低潮?                            to be at a low  (L. 15)

5. 迅速上升/增加?                       to be way up  (L. 18)

6. 一想到……就不寒而栗?                to tremble to think (L. 25)

7. 在日益专业化的年代                    in a time of increasing specialization  (L30)

8. 深刻领悟到······?                       to have the insight that… (L. 36)

9. ……有透彻的理解                    to have a perspective on sth.  (L. 38)

10. ······ 的限制之外?                   beyond the confines of  (L. 38)

11. 教育机构的职责                       the duty of educational institutions  (L40)

12. ······扫清障碍                        to prepare the way for  (L. 41)

13. 薪水丰厚的工作                       a prosperous career (L.44)

14. 超越……,远离…… ?                far removed from  (L. 45)

15. 看到事物之间的联系?                 to see the connections between things (L. 49)

16. 超越眼前的需求                       to see beyond one’s immediate needs (L. 49)

17. 使某人破产/倒闭?                    to drive sb. out of business (L. 50)

18. 明辨是非?                           to distinguish right from wrong (L. 56)

19. 把才能/天赋投入到······?               to give one’s ability or genius to sth. (L. 62)

20. 满足某人对······的渴求?                to answer one’s cries for sth. (L. 63)

 

3. 2 Summary of the text

Summarize the text with the following phrases:

1. find from a survey     2. more materialistic      3. major objective  4. meaningful life

5. less profitable courses              6. on the rise   7. on the decline     8. reach maturity

9. come to realization    10. for life as well as for career    11. do more to society

12. purpose of education              13. develop a moral sense      14. distinguish right from wrong

15. meet students’ demand     16. insight into life

The author found from a survey that nowadays some college students are more materialistic and less idealistic. Their major objective is to make money rather than pay attention to a meaningful life. Interest in some less profitable courses like teaching and humanities is on the decline while the interest in some profitable courses like business and computer science is on the rise. When people reach maturity, they will come to the realization that education can prepare people for life as well as for a career.

People can do much more to society than just make money. The purpose of education is not only to prepare students for a comfortable life but also to help them develop a moral sense and to have the ability to distinguish right from wrong. The author then calls on educators to meet students’ demand for a career education and at the same time to provide the latter with more insight into life.

 

3. 3 Assignments

1. Finish all the exercises related to Section A of Unit 8.

2. Write a paragraph of facts and reasons.

3. Preview Section B, including reading skills, the passage and the related exercises.

4. Oral exercise:

1) Paragraph recitation

2) Pair work: If it were possible for you to change your present major, what new major would you like to have or do you still want to stick to your old one?

 

 

 

Section B What Youngsters Expect in Life

1. Reading Skill

Distinguishing Between Facts and Opinions

The particular reading skill introduced for this unit is distinguishing between facts and opinions. The ability to distinguish between facts and opinions is important because it can help us to achieve a deeper level of understanding in our reading.

 

Facts are statements that tell what really happened or what really is the case. A fact can be proved or disproved with direct evidence. It is something known by actual experience or observation. Look at the following example taken from Reading Passage A:

 

Interest in teaching, social service and the humanities is at a low, along with ethnic and women’s studies. On the other hand, enrollment in business programs, engineering and computer science is way up. (Para. 6, Reading Passage A, Unit 8)

 

This sentence tells us about a current state of affairs: certainly it is a statement of fact.

Opinions are statements of belief, judgment or feeling. They show what someone thinks or feels about a subject. Some words can serve as clues to statements of some kind of opinion. For example, probably, perhaps, usually, often, sometimes, and on occasion are used to limit a statement of fact and to indicate the possibility of other opinions. Other words, such as I believe, I think, in my opinion, I feel, and I suggest, say clearly that an opinion will follow. Look at the following examples:

 

1. It has often been remarked that the saddest thing about youth is that it is wasted on the young. (Para. 1, Reading Passage A, Unit 8)
2. More importantly, perhaps, education teaches us to see the connections between things, as well as to see beyond our immediate needs. (Para. 14, Reading Passage A, Unit 8)

3. In the long run that’s what education really ought to be about. I think it can be. (Para. 17, Reading Passage A, Unit 8)
4. That’s the way it should be. Oscar Wilde had it right when he said we ought to give our ability to our work but our genius to our lives. (Para. 18, Reading Passage A, Unit 8)

 

But it is not always easy to tell opinion from fact. A writer often combines the two in such a way that we do not always notice where fact ends and opinion begins. When we have a mixture of fact and opinion in a single statement, we must decide whether the main point of the sentence is essentially fact or opinion. Sometimes an opinion is presented as if it were a fact:

 

If it is a fact that the meaning of life does not dawn until middle age, is it then not the duty of educational institutions to prepare the way for the revelation?  (Para. 13, Reading Passage A, Unit 8)

 

Practice:

 

Find and look at the following statements from Reading Passage B. Which are facts? Which are opinions? Select O for opinion or F for fact.

 

1. _____ Back in the good old days of stable economic expansion—the 1950s and 1960s—a person could choose to do something new, exciting, and creative in life but could also choose to say, “That’s not for me: I am going to play it safe in life. I am going to stay in my home town and have a nice comfortable career in a salaried job.”   F

2. _____ In the United States, three-quarters of the adults surveyed by the Harris poll and two-thirds of all high-school seniors surveyed by Scholastic magazine say they believe that the United States will be a worse place 10 years from now than it is today.   F

3. _____ No wonder young people are disaffected. No wonder they are not motivated to learn.  O

4. _____ They think the world in which they are going to spend their lives won’t be a very satisfactory place.   O

5. _____ When surveyors ask U.S. female high-school students what they are going to do when they graduate, they list all kinds of roles they want to fill, like doctors, lawyers, engineers, accountants, civil servants, police and firemen, and fighter pilots.   F

6. _____ If these people do not acquire some constructive vision of purpose for themselves, they are likely to be very destructive forces of resistance in society throughout their lives.   O

7. _____ It is the kind of moment in history when, to summarize in the words of Alfred North Whitehead, familiar patterns fade, familiar solutions fail, and familiar options disappear.   O

8. _____ However, in the absence of plausible alternative explanations for the gloomy economic news of the past 15—20 years and the gloomier prospects implicit in the projections of those trends, industrial societies—fearful for the future—might very well take backward steps.   O

 

2. Text Reading

1) expansion (L. 1)

Back in the good old days of stable economic expansion—the 1950s and 1960s—a person could choose to do something new, exciting, and creative in life but could also choose to say, …

回顾过去经济平稳发展的好时光—20世纪的50年代和60年代人们可能会选择生活中某种既新鲜刺激,又有创意的事干,但是也可能会说:……

Free expansion of a gas causes it to cool.

气体的自由膨胀会使其温度降低。  (n. [U] action of expanding)

Rapid urban expansion calls for proper planning to avoid profound negative environmental and socioeconomic impacts.

城市的快速扩张需要合理的规划以避免对环境和社会经济产生深远的负面影响。

温故知新:

Job opportunities for students are expanding rapidly and more people of all ages are becoming aware of online learning that allows them to study at home. (L 2, Unit 1-B, Book I)

随着学生就业机会的迅速,越来越多不同年龄层的人开始意识到这种在家中就学的网上学习方式

词语辨析:

 

expand: 指范围、体积的扩大、膨胀、扩张。 如:expand business   扩充事业

extend: 指在一个方向上的延伸、加长。  如:extend a railway to…   将公路延长到

enlarge: 指尺寸或空间的扩大。 如:enlarge a photograph   放大照片

 

2) play (it) safe (L. 3)

That’s not for me: I am going to play it safe in life.

那不是我要做的工作,我打算在生活中稳扎稳打

I don’t think it will rain today, but I’d better play (it) safe and take a raincoat.

我想今天不会下雨,可我最好还是保险一点,带件雨衣。(infml   carefully avoid risks)

Instead of risking his inheritance (继承的钱财) in the stock market, Tim decided to play safe and invest it in government bonds.

蒂姆没有把继承的钱财那到证券市场去冒险,而是决定谨慎行事,购买政府公债。

为以防万一,我们预留十分钟吧。

Let's allow an extra ten minutes; just play (it) safe.

Nevertheless, the wording of the document is not entirely clear and straightforward, and no doubt _________________(一些官员决定谨慎行事).

some officials decided to play it safe

Notice: play (it) safe = play things safe = play that one safe

 

3) Harris poll   (L. 8)

In the United States, three-quarters of the adults surveyed by the Harris poll and two-thirds of all high-school seniors surveyed by Scholastic magazine say …

在美国,哈里斯民意测验所调查的成人中的四分之三及《中学生》杂志所调查的高中生中的三分之二的人,都说……

Louis Harris Poll 是一个民意测验者和公共意见分析师,《时代》杂志的主任.1956年,他在纽约市建立了自己的公司,帮助候选人选择在竞选中最有效的战略\个性特征和方法

 

4) Scholastic (L. 9)

In the United States, three-quarters of the adults surveyed by the Harris poll and two-thirds of all high-school seniors surveyed by Scholastic magazine say

在美国,哈里斯民意测验所调查的成人中的四分之三及《中学生》杂志所调查的高中生中的三分之二的人,都说……

Scholastic Corporation is a global children’s publishing and media company. Scholastic creates quality educational and entertaining materials and products for use in school and at home, including children’s books, textbooks, magazines, technology-based products, teacher materials, television programming, videos and toys.

 

5) no wonder (L. 10)

No wonder young people are disaffected. No wonder they are not motivated to learn.

难怪年青人会感到不满意, 难怪他们没有学习动力。

 

No wonder I couldnt sleep well after playing computer games with Mike last night. We two were just too excited.

难怪昨晚和麦克打完电脑游戏后我没睡好,我们都太激动了。

No wonder people are googling instead of turning pages-it’s just convenient and fast!

难怪越来越多人喜欢用Google而不是去翻书,Google太方便快捷了!

he was caught in a shower? No wonder she was not feeling well.

I didn't know that Barbara was Jack's stepmother. ___________(难怪她不怎么关心他).

No wonder she shows little care for him

 

6) motivate (L. 11)

No wonder young people are disaffected. No wonder they are not motivated to learn.

难怪年青人会感到不满意, 也难怪他们没有学习动力

 

He was motivated by love, and expected nothing in return.

他的行动是出于爱心,不求回报。(cause to want to do sth. )

This murder was motivated by greed and hatred.

这宗谋杀案的动机是贪婪和仇恨。(be the reason for sb.’s action)

这种形势使得管理层更加难以激发工人的积极性。

The situation made it more difficult for management to motivate workers.

It is generally accepted that people are motivated by success and that it is often easier to work towards realistic short-term targets.

大家公认成功能够激励人,而且朝着现实的短期目标工作常常容易些。

7) prospect (L. 13)

Young men, in particular, are not happy with their prospects for the future.

特别是年轻小伙子对他们未来前景感到不满

 

The prospects of the car industry are bright.

汽车工业前景良好。(n. (pl.) chance of success 前景,前途)

There’s a reasonable prospect of reaching the target for this year’s economic growth.

完成今年经济发展的目标应该是可能的。(n. possibility of sth. happening )

The meteorological office says there is little             of rain in the near future.

A. perspective               B. foresight

C. prospect                 D. outlook

 

8) by comparison (L. 20)

By comparison, nearly half of male high-school students express their preference for a traditional, male-headed, one provider, nuclear family, where the wife stays home as mother and housewife.

与此相比, 几乎有一半男中学生表达了他们对传统的、以男人为家长的、只有一个人养家糊口的核心家庭的偏爱,在这种家庭里妻子作为母亲和家庭主妇呆在家里。

The tallest buildings in London are small by comparison with those in New York.

= By comparison, the tallest buildings in London are smaller than those in New York.

伦敦最高的建筑纽约的相比就相形见绌了。(when compared with )

相比之下,他更适合这份工作,因为他有更好的教育背景和在该领域有更多的经验。

By comparison, he is more suitable for the job in that he has a better educational background and more experience in this field.

Charlie Chaplin was so unique ______________(与其他同时代的艺术家相比); he was so impressive with his characteristic performance.

by comparison with other artists of his age

More than 60 people died in this earthquake. _______________(相比之下,1988年美国发生的同强度的地震) claimed 25,000 victims.

By comparison, an earthquake of similar intensity that shook America in 1988

 

9) preference (L. 20)

By comparison, nearly half of male high-school students express their preference for a traditional, male-headed, one provider, nuclear family, where the wife stays home as mother and housewife.

与此相比, 几乎有一半男中学生表达了他们对传统的、以男人为家长的、只有一个人养家糊口的核心家庭的偏爱,在这种家庭里妻子作为母亲和家庭主妇呆在家里。

Her preference is for comfortable rather than smart clothes.

她选择衣服更看重舒适而不是时髦。(. [U] a liking for sth. more than sth. else)

I don’t know your preferences, so please help yourself.

我不知你喜欢吃什么, 请你自便吧。  (n. [C] a thing that is liked better or best)

她选择白裙子我并不感到意外。她一直偏好白色。

I am not surprised at all that she chose the white skirt. She always has a preference for white.

 

10) nuclear family (L. 21)

By comparison, nearly half of male high-school students express their preference for a traditional, male-headed, one provider, nuclear family, where the wife stays home as mother and housewife.

与此相比, 几乎有一半男中学生表达了他们对传统的、以男人为家长的、只有一个人养家糊口的核心家庭的偏爱,在这种家庭里妻子作为母亲和家庭主妇呆在家里。

 

Nuclear family

核心家庭,一般指只有父母和子女组成的家庭。

11) proportion (L. 25)

A large proportion of America’s young men—one third or more—simply say they don’t know what they’re going to do as adults.

很大比例的美国男青年三分之一或更多只是说他们不知道在成年以后要做什么。

During the twentieth century there has been a remarkable shortening of _____________(女子用于照顾孩子的时间).

the proportion of a woman's life spent in caring for children   (n. 部分)

The proportion of women in the total work force has risen and many women are working in the positions men used to dominate.

妇女在整个劳动工人中的比例已经上升,并且很多妇女已进入到了原来被男子们统治的工作岗位上。(比例,比率)

The proportion of imports to exports is worrying the government.

政府对进出口的比例担忧。

The tax increases in proportion to the amount of money you earn.

所得税按收入额成比例增加。

 

12) associate…with… (L. 31)

They are not associated with any formal role in society, nor are they in any formal relationship with another person.

他们和社会上任何正派人都不搭界,也不和其他人建立任何合乎传统习俗的联系。

I’d rather not associate myself with any political statements.

我可不想自己任何政治言论有什么联系join … together

You wouldn’t normally associate him with that writer—their styles are completely different.

人们通常是不会那位作者联系在一起的——他们的风格迥然不同。

A healthy life is frequently thought to be         with the open countryside and homegrown food.

A. tied                                 C. bound

B. involved                              D. associated

13. at large (L. 36)

So this is a very pregnant moment, not only for the future of America, but also for all of the mature industrial economies and, ultimately, for the world at large.

因此这是个至关重要的时刻,这不仅仅对美国的未来、而且对所有成熟的工业化国家,并且最终对整个世界来说都是至关重要的。

Elementary education is an important issue that needs to be discussed by society at large.

基础教育是重要问题,需要整个社会来讨论。(as a whole; in general)

Though the police have been doing their utmost for the past week, the escaped criminal is still at large.

尽管在过去的一周里警察尽力追捕,逃跑的罪犯还未抓获(not in confinement)

People _________________(普遍赞成) the new policy, which is a great relief to the new government.

at large approve of

This shows _______________________(学生们的普遍意见), you should

the opinion of students at large

 

14) Alfred North Whitehead (L. 38)

It is the kind of moment in history when, to summarize in the words of Alfred North Whitehead, familiar patterns fade, familiar solutions fail, and familiar options disappear.

我们不妨用阿尔弗雷德·诺思·怀特海德的话来加以归纳:在历史上的这种时刻,熟悉的模式在消退,熟悉的解决办法在失效,熟悉的选择在消失。

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

英国数学家\逻辑学家和哲学家,擅长数学逻辑学

 

15) variation (L. 41)

---a slow-motion variation of shouting “Fire!” in a crowded theater.

---只是在挤满了观众的戏院里有人大叫着火啦的那种景象的慢镜头的变种而已。

 

His endless complaints are all variations on the same thing.

他无休止的抱怨说来说去全是同一回事。(n. 变异)

The research team has a very good record of day-to-day variations in pollution in the air.

这个研究小组详尽地记录了大气污染逐日的差异(n. 变化)

All your ideas are just variations on his theory.

你的所有的观点只不过是把他的理论改头换面而已。

温故知新:

Such ornaments are often the means by which a person announces a variety of things about himself: his convictions (campaign buttons), his beliefs (religious tokens), …  (L40, Unit 4-B, Book I)

这些饰物常常是一个人显示其各方面情况的手段:他的信念(竞选运动徽章)、他的信仰(宗教标志)、……

This kind of variability not only loosens the parents’ ability to set limits, it also sours the parent-child relationship to some degree, robbing parents and their children of some of the happiness and mutual respect that is present in healthy families. (L.24, Unit 5-B, Book II)

这样的反复无定不但削弱了父母管孩子的能力,同时也在某种程度上使父母与子女之间的关系变味---使家长和子女失去存在于健康家庭里的某些幸福和相互尊重

16) dominant (L. 47)

These steps will principally serve the interests of the economically dominant groups who want to protect their assets and resources from the forces of change.

这些措施主要是为那些经济上处于支配地位的集团服务,这些集团希望保护他们的资产和资源不因变革而受损。

As a dominant figure at the conference, he made an important speech and attracted much attention.

作为参加会议的重要人物,他做了重要讲话,引起广泛关注。(a. 最重要的)

The Town Hall was built ________________(居高临下的位置) on a hill where everyone could see it.

in a dominant position

It is a country that has long been ______________(军事强国) in the region.

the dominant military power

温故知新:

Even so, one prominent magazine consistently refused to print "Joe" in my by-line, using my first initials, J.S., instead. ( L28 Unit 6-A, Book II)

即使如此,一家著名杂志一直拒绝把“乔”作为我的文章的作者署名,而是用我名字的首字母J.S.来代替它。 (well-known)

他年仅30,但已是本市著名的外科医生了。

He is only 30 years old, but he has become a prominent surgeon in this city.

 

17) display(L. 50)

The anger and frustration displayed by people who do not understand what is happening to them will be a terrible and dangerous force in all the major industrial economies.

那些不理解正在他们的身上发生着的事情的人们所表现出来的愤怒和失望将成为所有主要工业国家中的一股可怕和危险的力量。

The new fashions for the season are displayed in the shop windows.

该季度的时尚新款服饰都展示在橱窗里。  (exhibit)

当他们告诉她这一消息时,她表现出极大的克制力。

She displayed great self-control when they told her the news.  (show )

The frustration displayed by people who lose their jobs will be a dangerous force in all the major industrial economics.

那些失去工作的人们所显露出来的挫折状态将会成为影响所有主要工业经济的危险力量。

Why don't you _____________(将你的广告贴在布告栏) where everyone can see it?

display your ad on the notice board

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