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视野大学英语读写教程第二册课文学习辅导  

2010-06-05 09:03:05|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 7  Section A  Lighten Your Load And Save Your Life< xmlnamespace prefix ="o" ns ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Objectives
1.Skills:
 1)reading:
Finding Out Word Meanings

 2)writing: A paragraph of cause-and-effect

 3)listening: understanding the passages about stress, listening for the main idea and the important details, learning to take notes while listening
4)speaking: talking about pressure

2.Vocabulary development:
1)words:
excess attribute emphasis recommend stimulate priority spin lighten frequent overwhelming tremendous rhythms

2)expressions:  to feel / be overwhelmed (with…) to spin out of control  to lighten one’s load among other things on the exterior,… on the interior together with to blow one’s top to give emphasis to…to stir in one’s own juice to blow apart with sth. to cut sth. down to…to set one’s priorities to keep sth. in mind attribute …to…

3. Patterns

1. If sb. often / always, like (从句), then sb. may be doing…如果某人经常/ 总是……,好像 …… ,那么某人很可能是……

2. What happens is that the more sb. or sth. with, the more likely sb. or sth. is to with…此时就会发生这种情况 --- 某人或某事由于……变得越……, 某人或某事就越可能因为 …… 而 ……

3. From sb.’s viewpoint / point of view, the (other) key to doing sth. is to realize / admit / beware that

依照某人的观点,做某事(另一个)关键因素是承认 / 意识到 (谨防)……---.

 

1. Pre-reading

1. 1 Background information

Stress: “Americans’ #1 Health Problem.” So reads the headline of an article published by the American Institute of Stress that claims the biggest threat to health today is neither cancer nor AIDS. The report says: “it has been estimated that 75-90 percent of all visits to primary care physicians are for stress-related problems.”

  According to the National Consumers League, ‘work is the top source of stress for adults who have problems and stress in their lives (39%), followed by family (30%). Other sources include health (10%), concern about economy (9%) and concern about international conflict and terrorism (4%).

压力: 美国压力协会发表的一篇文章以美国头号健康问题为题,宣称如今健康的最大威胁不是癌症,也不是艾滋病,而是压力。该报告称,具估计,日常人们去看医生75%-90%是因压力而产生的不舒服。

 美国消费者协会认为,39%的成年人的压力主要来自工作,他们大多生活中有问题和压力存在;其次, 30%的压力来自家庭。其他压力源自于: 健康(10%), 关注经济(9%), 关注国际间的冲突和恐怖主义(4%)

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Dr. Robert S. Eliot: Dr. Robert S. Eliot, the author of the book: From Stress to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life. You can read a short discussion on his book at the website given: http://www.watchtower.org/library/g/1998/3/22/article_01.htm.

罗伯特?S. 埃利奥特: 《从压力到力量: 怎样减轻你的负担并拯救你的生命》一书的作者。在http://www.watchtower.org/library/g/1998/3/22/article_01.htm 这一网址上你能读到有关他的这本书的讨论。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The < xmlnamespace prefix ="st1" ns ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />University of Nebraska: The university (1869) has four campuses. Its main campus is located in Lincoln, where colleges of arts and sciences, agriculture, education, architecture, engineering and technology, business administration, journalism, and law are housed. The University of Nebraska’s medical center has colleges of medicine, nursing, dentistry, and pharmacy.

内布拉斯加大学: 该校成立于1869,有四个校区。主校园位于林肯市,主要有文理学院\农学院\教育学院\工程技术学院\商学院\新闻学院\法学院等。该校医学中心下设:医学院\护理学院\牙科医学院\药学院等。

 

 

 

Benjamin (Ben) Franklin: Benjamin (Ben) Franklin, a very famous American of the 1700’s best known for his experiments with electricity and nature, using kites.

本杰明() ? 富兰克林: 十八世纪美国名人,因为用风筝做电的实验而闻名

 

 

 

1. 2 Topic-related listening/video

2. While-reading

2. 1 Global reading

2. 1. 1 Understanding the major details of the text

1)What is stress? What causes stress?

 

Stress is a state of tension that just results when a person responds to the demands and pressures. It may come from work, family and other external sources, as well as those internal factors, like self-imposed demands and self-criticism derived from fear, uncertainty, doubt, improper ambition and lack of self-control. This is particularly true with hard-working professional women and people with no goals in life. Stress, once it goes to excess, can almost ruin a person.

 

2) What are the NICE factors? Why are they important?

NICE factors include new, interesting, and challenging experiences. These factors help people relax themselves and take charge of their life. Consequently, they are more likely to be able to cope with the stress, because trying new, interesting and challenging things can give people’s negative feelings an outlet and relieve their psychological burden. With a relaxed mind and good mood, people will put their talents to better use, thus making greater achievements.

 

3) How do we follow Ben Franklin’s example?

When it comes to what to do in order to relax and take control of our life, we may follow Ben Franklin’s example. According to Ben Franklin, first we can write down the important goals we want to achieve in our life. And then, we can narrow down the list and set our priority. However, if we have some problems we are unable to bring under control, we may as well learn to accept and get used to them.

2. 1. 2 Understanding the organization of the text

1) Main idea of the text

 

Stress exerts great impact upon people both (1)_____________________. According to the research done by Dr. Robert S. Eliot (2)_____________ may cause tremendous and rapid increases in (3)__________________ and then bring damage to (4)_____________. In fact these problems may be attributed to such FUD factors as (5)___________, (6)___________, (7)_____________ and (8)_____________. To cope with stress, we should (9)______________ our life, lighten the load and learn to fit in with the life.

(1) physically and psychologically  (2) excess stress  (3) blood pressure  (4) the heart  (5) fear (6) uncertainty (7) doubt  (8) lack of control  (9) take charge of

 

2) Division of the text

Part I (Paras. 1-3)

 

Stress, once (1)________________, will threaten your life. So if you don’t want it to affect your health, you need to (2)_______________ and (3)__________________ of your ability.

(1) spinning out of your control  (2) take charge of your life  (3) recognize the limit

Part II (Paras. 4-6)

The research finds that stressed people have (4)______________ levels, which is because excess stress can burst (5) _____________ and then cause (6) _____________, thus making it impossible for one to live.

(4) higher cholesterol / (5) heart muscle fibers / (6) crazy heart rhythms

Part III (Paras. 7-11)

There are many factors leading to stress but the main predictors of destructive levels of stress are (7) __________________.

(7) the FUD factors

Part IV (Paras. 12-20)

To cope with stress in life, people need to take charge of the life and recognize some parts of their life (8) _____________ and learn to (9) ____________.

  (8) beyond their control  (9) flow

2. 2 Detailed reading

2. 2. 1 Words and Phrases

1) be out of control (L. 1)

If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in your life is spinning out of control, then you may be hurting your heart. (L. 1-2)

如果你常常生气、心烦意乱、情绪激动,好像你生活中的压力正在快速加剧并变得失去控制,那么你可能是在损害你的心脏了。

温故知新:

The future is not something imposed upon us by fate or other forces beyond our control. (Unit 9-A, Book I)  (beyond one’s control = out of control)

未来不是由命运或其他不可抗拒的力量强加于我们。

People seem to have forgotten ways to keep diseases under control. Although medical science had achieved control over several dangerous diseases, some are returning. (Unit 9-B, Book I)人们似乎已经忘记了如何控制疾病。虽然医学早就能够控制若干危险的疾病,有些病却正在卷土重来。(“under control” is the opposite of “out of control”)  (have control over sth. =control sth.)

常用搭配:

be out of control        失去控制

be beyond control       失去控制

be under control        控制住

bring…under control    ……控制住

have control over sth.    控制某事物

Prices everywhere _______________(处于失控无序的状态); people are complaining of the increasing prices.

were out of control

It took the teacher months to ____________________(把他教的班级控制住).

bring his class under control

2) among other things (L. 11)

Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels, among other things. (L. 10-11)

埃利奥特说,研究人员已经发现,有压力的人除了其他症状外,胆固醇的含量也较高。

At the meeting they discussed, among other things, recent events in Far East.

 

会上他们讨论了有关远东最近发生的事情和其他一些事情(除其他……之外)

 

要想保持健康,除了其他方面,饮食和锻炼至关重要。

Among other things, diet and exercises are of vital importance to health.

Robert is very keen on sport: ________________(除其他活动外,他每星期打三次篮球).

among other things, he plays basketball three times a week.

 

3) excess (L. 11)

We’ve done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers. (L. 11-12)

我们已经做了多年研究,证明过分忧虑或紧张所产生的化学物质的确会损伤心肌纤维。

If you take more luggage than is allowed, you will have to pay for the excess luggage  (adj. extra or additional)

温故知新:

Factors affecting general health include excessive smoking and drinking of alcohol and polluted water supplies.  (Unit 9-B, Book I)

影响大众健康的因素包括吸烟过度\酗酒以及饮水污染。  (too much, too great)

Now, 500 years later, excessive fishing has reduced the number of fish to dangerously low level.(Unit1-A, BookII)  五百年后的今天, 过度捕捞已使鱼的数量减少到危险的程度。

词语辨析:

excess:    1 adj. additional  超过限额的;附加的

2 n. the fact of exceeding, an amount by which sth. exceeds

excessive  adj. too much, too great  过多的,过度的

Practice:

1.You will have to pay__________ postal charges on this letter.  excess

2.She takes an _________ interest in clothes in comparison to her studies.  excessive

3.I often advise him never to spend money _______ of his income.  excess

 

4) attribute …to… (L. 16)

He attributes some of the cause to stress.  (L. 16)

他把这次心脏病发作的部分原因归于压力。(归因于)

Experts attributed the frequent sandstorms this winter to erosion and deforestation.

专家把今冬频繁的沙尘暴归因于水土流失和过度伐木。

词语辨析1:

attribute…to…:归因于…… 归功于……

owe…to…  : 归功于……  (不用被动态)

I owe so much to my family for standing by me through all this.

我很感激家人自始至终支持我。

她把自己的成功归因于运气好。

She attributed her success to good luck. (=owe…to…)

1,150 deaths a year ___________ (死于酒后驾驶), which serves a good warning to drivers.

can be attributed to drunk driving

5) emphasis (L. 33)

And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give a family argument.  (L. 32-33)

他们把交通堵塞看得和家庭纠纷一样

常用搭配:

give emphasis to sth.  强调,重视

lay / place emphasis on sth.  强调,重视

with emphasis (on)     ad.  强调,着力

在孩子的成长过程中,我们应把对孩子的爱心培养和智力发展看得同等重要。

In the course of children’s growth, we should give as much emphasis to the cultivation of their love for others as to their intellectual development.

该课程提供多种学科供学生们选择,其中以古代文学为主。

This course offers students a wide choice of study, with emphasis on literature from ancient times.

The new economic policy _________(着力降低通货膨胀).

lays great emphasis on reducing inflation

6) outlet (L. 34)

If you own anger for more than five minutes---if you stir in your own juice with no safety outlet---you have to find out where it’s coming from.   (L. 33-35)

如果你生气超过5分钟---如果你生闷气,没有安全的发泄渠道的话---你就必须弄清楚你生气缘自何处。

常用搭配:

find an outlet of / for: to let go of

Leave enough time for activities. Children need an _____________(发泄精力的机会).

outlet for their energy

It is not that he loves writing letters but that writing letters is ______________(他唯一的情感发泄渠道). his only form of emotional outlet

He is used to talking to his best friends to _______________(发泄心中的怨气).

find an outlet for / of his anger

7) recommend (L. 40)

Eliot recommends taking charge of your life.  (L. 40)

埃利奥特建议人们控制自己的生活。

常用搭配:

recommend sth. / sb. for sb.   向某人推荐……;推荐某人做

recommend sb. as…     推荐某人为……

recommend doing sth. =suggest doing sth.   建议做某事

recommend sb. to do sth.  劝某人做

recommend that  (should)  建议……

We'd _____________(建议人们远离) these young men for their own safety, as there have been several violent incidents recently.

recommend people to stay away from

The headmaster agreed to _____________(把老师们的建议推荐给政府).

recommend the teachers' suggestions to the government

医生竭力建议他尽快戒烟。

The doctor strongly recommended that she .should stop smoking as soon as possible.

也许你可以推荐一些英语小说给我在暑假看。

Perhaps you can recommend some English novels for me to read in summer holiday.

8) stimulate (L. 48)

He wrote down things like being a better father, being a better husband, being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even-tempered---he wasn’t good at that.  (L. 46-48)

他写下了诸如要做一个更好的爸爸、更好的丈夫、经济上独立、智力上活跃,而且还要保持性情平和---这一点他也做不好。

Success will stimulate a person to further efforts/ make greater efforts. (v. make sb/sth. more active激励,促使)

成功激励人们更加努力。

The book was trying to stimulate discussion of the problem of global warming / people to discuss the problem of global warning. ( v. arouse 引起,激起)

这本书试图引发人们讨论全球变暖问题。

我希望我的告诫会促使她作出更大的努力。

I hoped my warning would stimulate her to greater efforts.

这次展览引起人们对这位艺术家的作品的兴趣.

The exhibition stimulated interest in the artist's work.

常用搭配:

stimulate one’s imagination/ interest/ curiositymotivation

9) cut down (L. 49)

Eliot says you can first make a list of 12 things, then cut it down to 6 and set your priorities. (L. 48-49)

埃利奥特说,你可以先列出12件事,然后把它压缩6件,要确定轻重缓急。

温故知新:

Trees are cut down, more soil washes away, and water quality is affected. ( Unit 9-B, Book I)

树木遭砍伐,越来越多的泥土被冲走,水质受到了影响。 (砍伐)

常用搭配:

cut (sth.) down (sth.)    砍伐;减少……的量

cut sth. down to (prep.)  ……减少到……

cut down on sth.       减少……的量

You should cut down on video games if you don’t want to fail the exams.

如果你想通过考试,就应少玩电子游戏。

Your article is well-written except for being too long. Please ___________(压缩到1000).

cut it down to 1000 words

Thanks to the efficient and proper treatment after the accident, the damage _____________(降到了最低限度).

was cut down to the minimum level

10) priority (L. 50)

Eliot says you can first make a list of 12 things, then cut it down to 6 and set your priorities. (L. 49-50)

埃利奥特说,你可以先列出12件事,然后把它压缩到6件,要确定轻重缓急

Whatever you do, priorities should be set because it is unwise to try to attend to big and small matters all at once. (确定优先做的事情)

无论做什么事情都应该有个轻重缓急,因为眉毛胡子一把抓是不明智的.

你不可能在这码段的时间内完成所有的任务,因此你应该分清轻重缓急.

It is impossible for you to get all the tasks done within such a short period of time so you must decide what your priorities are.

 

常用搭配:

take / have priority over  ……在先, 有优先权

give sth. priority over    给予……优先权, 首要考虑……, 先做……

one’s priority is to do sth.  优先要做的是……

 

This is an important matter, so we must____________(优先考虑这件事) all other business.

give it priority over

They insist that the right to education______________(优于其他一切应考虑的因素) because it will decide a nation's future development.take priority over all other considerations

Our ______________(首要的任务是有一个高效的) transport system, and clean air is a secondary factor. priority is to have an efficient

2. 2. 2 Sentence patterns

1) 原句: 1.If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in your life is spinning out of control, then you may be hurting your heart. (L. 1)  如果你常常生气、心烦意乱、情绪激动,好像你生活中的压力正在快速加剧并变得失去控制,那么你可能是在损害你的心脏了。

句型提炼: If sb. often / always…, like… (从句), then sb. may be doing如果某人经常/ 总是……,好像 …… ,那么某人很可能是……

应用:

如果你心怀怨恨,怨天尤人,好像什么都和你做对,那么你需要调整心态,学会积极的生活方式。

 

If you hold grudge against everyone and complain about everything, like everything goes against you, then you need to adjust yourself and learn to live a positive life.

如果你觉得无所事事,好像现实的一切都无聊透顶,那么你可能需要寻求帮助。

If you feel nothing worth a try, like everything is boring and meaningless, then you might need to seek for help.

 

 

2) 原句: 2. What happens is that the hotter people get, physiologically, with mental stress, the more likely they are to blow apart with some heart problem. (L. 36) 此时就会发生这种情况人们由于心理上的压力在生理上变得越激动,他们的身体就越可能因为某种心脏病而垮下来。 

句型提炼: What happens is that the more sb. or sth.… with…, the more likely sb. or sth. is to… with…此时就会发生这种情况 --- 某人或某事由于……变得越……, 某人或某事就越可能因为 …… 而 ……

应用:

通常发生的情况是,由于紧张,考生们越是想镇静下来,就越会心跳加速,手心出汗,头脑真空。

What often happens is that the more the candidates want to compose themselves, with nervousness, the more likely they would find themselves with quicker heart beat, sweating palm and blank minds.

常常会发生这样的情况, 由于求成心切,你越是想把事情做好,越是可能会把它搞砸了。

What often happens is that , the more you want to make it right,  with eagerness, the more likely you would blow it up.

3) 原句: From Eliot’s viewpoint, the other key to controlling stress is torealize that there are other troublesome parts of your life over which you can have little or no control like the economy and politicians.” (L. 54)

依照爱里奥特的观点控制压力的另一个关键因素是要承认你生活中还有一些棘手的、你几乎无法或完全无法控制的东西比如经济以及政客们

句型提炼:

From sb.’s viewpoint / point of view, the (other) key to doing sth. is to realize / admit / beware that

依照某人的观点,做某事(另一个)关键因素是承认 / 意识到 (谨防)……---.

 

应用:

按照专家的观点,长寿的关键是意识到健康生活方式的重要性,比如保持乐观向上心态和不断学习的状态。

From the experts’ viewpoints the key to longevity is to be aware of the importance of healthy lifestyle, like keeping learning and maintaining positive and optimistic mentality.

 

根据一些心理学家的观点,幸福的关键是意识到人际关系的重要性,比如拥有稳定的婚姻和稳固的社会关系。

From some psychologists’ point,  the key to happiness is to  realize that interpersonal relationship works, like having stable marriage and social links.

2. 3 Guided writing: A paragraph of cause-and-effect (因果关系)

       In the reading passage the writer deals with the harmful effects of stress. In Paragraph 5, we find the shocking effect of stress is death. However, the writer does not jump to the conclusion abruptly. Instead, the writer presents a progressive process of a series of causes and effects, which makes the argument more convincing.

Here are some points for your attention:

       1) When writing a cause-and-effect paragraph, bear in mind that it sounds reasoning or logical. You must not take it for granted that event A causes event B simply because event A precedes event B. In other words, you must explain clearly what really brings about a particular result.

       2) Keep possible shift in order. In cause-and-effect writing, it seems convenient to state the effect first and then analyze the causes. The reverse order; however, is to be preferred when one cause leads to a number of effects.

 

 

The Structure of a Paragraph

 

Structure 1:

Topic Sentence

                                   

 Effect-cause 1

  Effect-cause1 2

                                   

Concluding Sentence

 

Structure 2:

 

Topic Sentence

                                   

 Cause –effect 1

 Cause –effect 2

                                   

Concluding Sentence

Example 1:

       Eliot, 64, suffered a heart attack at age 44. He attributes some of he cause to stress. For years he was a “hot reactor”. On the exterior, he was cool, calm and collected, but on the interior, stress was killing him. He’s now doing very well. (Para.6, Unit 7-A, Book II)

 

Cause and Effect One:

Effect: Eliot suffered a heart attack at age 44.

Cause: stress

                                                       

Cause and Effect Two:

Effect: stress

Cause: he was a “hot reactor”

                                                       

Cause and Effect Three:

Effect: he was a “hot reactor

Cause: On the exterior, he was cool, calm and collected, but on the interior, stress was killing him.

 

       Example 2:

       It is difficult for workers to find employment this year. One reason is that many industries are not hiring new workers. In addition, industries are reducing their current staff levels because of a decline in national economic conditions. Another reason is that workers who once might have considered early retirement as optional are now staying at their jobs and must keep their positions in order to meet their minimum financial responsibilities.

Topic: It is difficult for workers to find employment this year.

                                                       

Cause and Effect One:

Cause 1: a decline in national economic conditions

Result 1: many industries are not hiring new workers, even reducing the current staff levels

                                                       

Cause and Effect Two:

Cause 2: to meet the minimum financial responsibilities

Result 2: workers who might have considered early retirement as optional are now staying at their jobs

 

Useful sentence patterns for cause:

There are several reasons why / for…

The reasons for…are…

The reasons why…are as follows.

…is caused by / due to / because of…

 

Useful sentence patterns for effect:

       The result / effect consequence of…is…

       …will result in…

       Therefore, …

       As a result (of…), …

 

Words to be used for cause:

       because (of), since, now that, as a result of, on account of, for this reason, owing to, due to, result from

 

Words to be used for effect:

       lead to, result in, contribute to, so that, thus, hence, consequently, accordingly, in view of…

 

Practice:

Write a paragraph of cause and effect based on the topic and outline given below.

       Main idea: Advertisements are one of the most frustrating of watching television.

       Cause: frequent advertisements, to interrupt viewers, to make products attractive

       Effects: time is wasted, to lose the appetite for the show, to be under economic pressure

Reference model:

       Advertisements are one of the most frustrating parts of watching television. The reasons for this are as follows. In the first place, owing to the frequent advertisements, much time is wasted. In the second place, the advertisements interrupt the viewers, which leads to the viewers losing their appetite for the good show. In the third place, they make people under constant economic pressure because the ads make many products look more attractive than they really are. Since ads could not disappear from TV screen, the television viewers must be aware and critical of the advertisements in order to endure them.

 

3. Post-reading

3. 1 Useful expressions

1. 陷入……,沉浸于……; ……征服    to feel / be overwhelmed (with…) (L.1)

 

2. 快速加剧而失去控制                  to spin out of control  (L.1)

 

3. 许多事情是身不由己的                there are many things beyond one’s control  (L.4)

4. 减轻压力(负担)                    to lighten one’s load (L.6)

 

5. 除其他……之外                      among other things  (L.11)

 

6. 将病因归于压力                      to attribute cause of disease to stress (L.15)

 

7. 表面上看……,但是实际上……        on the exterior,… on the interior (L.18)

8. ······一起                           together with (L.22)

 

9. ……的根源                           the root of ... (L.24)

 

10. 十全十美                           to be all things  (L.28)

 

11. 大发雷霆                           to blow one’s top  (L.31)

12. 生活没有方向                       to have no compass in life  (L.32)

 

13. 看重/强调 ……                     to give emphasis to… (L.32)

 

14. 生气                               to own anger  (L.33)

 

15. 受煎熬                             to stir in one’s own juice  (L.34)

 

16. ……而跨下来                     to blow apart with sth. (L.37)

 

17. 降低到······                          to cut sth. down to… (L.49)

18. 确定优先做的事情                   to set one’s priorities  (L.49)

 

19. 牢记,记住                         to keep sth. in mind  (L.54)

20. …… 几乎没有或没有控制         to have little or no control over sth.  (L.56)

 

 

3. 2 Summary of the text

Summarize the text with the following phrases:

1. frequent anger and overwhelming stress

2. take charge of your life

3. tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure

4. crazy heart rhythms

5. FUD factors—fear, uncertainty and doubt

6. the root of their stress

7. a feeling that everything must be perfect

8. a lack of compass in life

9. the NICE factors—new, interesting, challenging experiences

10. set your priorities in your life

11. flow rather than fight or flee

Frequent anger and overwhelming stress may be harmful to your health. To solve this problem, you have to learn to take charge of your life and recognize there are many things beyond your control. For those who are hot reactors, being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure. Researchers have also found that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers, causing crazy heart rhythms. 

The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factorsfear, uncertainty and doubt—together with perceived lack of control. For many people, the root of their stress is anger, which either comes from a feeling that everything must be perfect (especially professional women) or is caused by a lack of compass in life. The NICE factorsnew, interesting, challenging experiences—are recommended to calm yourself down. You have to set your priorities in your life and change them if necessary. In order to face all the problems beyond your control, you have to learn how to flow rather than fight or flee.

 

3. 3 Assignment:

1) Finish all the exercises related to Section A of Unit 6.

2) Paragraph writing: Write one short paragraph of Cause and Effect.(see 2.3)

3) Preview Section B, including reading skills, the passage and the related exercises.

4) Oral Exercise:

paragraph recitation.

Work in pairs, and make up a conversation about how to lighten up and live longer.

 

 

Text B Are You A Workaholic?

1. Reading Skill

Finding Out Word Meanings

As was introduced in Unit 2, we often can figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word through the clues provided by context. The context clues that might be helpful for you to recognize the meaning of a new word include:

 

1) Some sentences give the definition for a difficult word with the help of punctuation such as commas, dashes or parentheses (插入语).

2) Context sometimes gives examples to illustrate a difficult word rather than define it. We can use the examples to figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

3) Synonyms (同义词) are words or phrases that are similar in meaning. A synonym is one type of context clue that helps you to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words.

4) Antonyms (反义词) are words or phrases that have opposite meanings to other words or phrases. Antonym clues can help you understand new words.

5) Sentences before or after a sentence that has a difficult word sometimes explain the meaning of the word.

6) Sometimes we can use our own experiences, or our knowledge about a certain subject, to find out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

7) Word part clues. We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or suffix attached to the root word, or the two words that make up a compound word.

 

Here we pick out some examples from the passages we have learned to explain how this particular reading skill is used in practice.

 

Example 1

Context clue: Context sometimes gives examples to illustrate a difficult word rather than define it. We can use the examples to figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

Example: So says Dr. Robert S. Eliot, author of a new book titled From Stress to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life. (Para. 3)

Explanation: The word titled is used after the noun phrase “a new book”. Following it is a long string of words in italics with the initial letters in capitals. Clearly it is the name of a book. All this helps us to find out the meaning of the word titled, that is, “given a title of ... or named or called”.

 

Example 2

Context clue: Antonym (反义词) clues. Antonyms are words or phrases that have opposite meanings to other words or phrases. Antonym clues can help you understand new words.

Example: This is due partly to the fact that the telephone service is superb here, whereas the postal service is less efficient. (L. 46, Unit 1-A, Book II)

Explanation: Clearly there is a contrast in the sentence. Through the antonym clue, accompanied by word part clues, we can understand what the new word superb means: excellent.

 

Example 3

Context clue: We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or suffix attached to the root word.

Example: Perhaps it was unnoticeable at first, a little coughing in the morning as he lit his first cigarette upon getting out of bed. (L. 26, Unit 5-A, Book II)

Explanation: We can find out the meaning of the new word unnoticeable, because we know that this adjective is formed by adding the prefix un- and suffix -able to the verb notice.

 

Example 4

Context clue: Sometimes we can use our own experiences, or our knowledge about a certain subject, to find out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

Example: Brazil is the home of the world’s largest jungle rain forest, the Amazon. (L. 29, Unit 2-A, Book II)

Explanation: We can figure out the meaning of the new word jungle, because we have the knowledge about the rain forest in Brazil.

 

Now read the following sentences to figure out the meanings of the underlined words and expressions by using context clues. Choose the answer that is the closest match.

 

1.Workaholics, on the other hand, are often disorganized, always find reasons for working more, feel lost without work to do, hide from problems through work, don’t know how or when to relax, bring work home from the office, can’t communicate well with fellow workers and family members, and have unbalanced, one-dimensional lives. (Para. 2)

A. people who like to work too hard

B. people who work hard for money

C. people who have a large family to support

D. people who regularly work overtime

2. Despite lip service to the contrary (“a balanced employee is a productive employee”), most employers want loyal employees who work longer hours, rewarding them with higher pay and better benefits. In many companies, workers unwilling to burn the midnight oil are at risk. Certainly, they hazard their jobs by working normal hours. (Para. 3)

A. keep

B. risk

C. continue

D. love

3. It can fuel a sense of self-worth and accomplishment. (Para. 4)

A. affect

B. weaken

C. run against

D. make stronger

4. People with high energy that needs discharging. (Para. 6)

A. giving up

B. easing away

C. pouring out

D. keeping under

5. Those little thingsreading mystery novels, playing volleyball, spending time with family and friends, playing with the dog, going fishingmay seem relatively insignificant means to a healthy end. They can be at least as rewarding as work. (Para. 10)

A. a way of getting a result

B. unimportant meaning

C. a point to start from

D. effective management

2. Text Reading

1) other than (L. 3)

Working hard involves being organized, focused, getting a lot of work done, knowing when to stop, and having a life other than work.  (L. 2-3) 努力工作是指工作有条理、精力集中,完成许多工作,知道何时歇手,知道除了工作还有生活。

We missed the last bus so there was no choice other than to walk home.

我们错过了最后一班车, 因此除了步行回家,我们别无选择(except)

There is no ferry to the island. __________(除了游泳,没有其他办法可以去那儿了).

You can't get there other than by swimming.

He's a very organized man! He knows ___________(在工作之余如何享受人生).

how to have a life other than work

2) constantly (L. 8)

Workaholics, like those who are constantly drunk, suffer from a controlling habit, usually defined as compelling behavior despite negative consequences. (L. 8-9)  工作狂,就像那些老是醉醺醺的人一样,有一种无法摆脱的习惯,这种习惯通常被定义为不顾消极后果的强迫性行为。

We get envious of them, and constantly compare ourselves with them.

我们很羡慕他们,老是拿自己与他们做比较。 (continuously)

The old man's voice trembled and he __________(一直看着) Louise for advice and support.

constantly looked to

As I walked through the playground, I was _______________(不断想起以前的学校生活).

constantly reminded of my school life

3) consequence (L. 9)

Workaholics, like those who are constantly drunk, suffer from a controlling habit, usually defined as compelling behavior despite negative consequences. (L. 8-9) 工作狂,就像那些老是醉醺醺的人一样,有一种无法摆脱的习惯,这种习惯通常被定义为不顾消极后果的强迫性行为。

Now that you are an adult, you should always consider the consequences before you take action.

既然你已经长大,就应该在采取行动前考虑后果

Such a mistake would perhaps lead to terrible consequences.

这样的错误也许会导致灾难性的后果

常用搭配:

as a consequence: as a result, therefore

今天早上我没赶上公共汽车,因此,我上班迟到了。

I missed the bus this morning and as a consequence was late for work.

温故知新:

Consequently, they work hard at the task of saving time. (Unit1-A, Book II)

4) to the contrary (L. 11)

Despite lip service to the contrary (“a balanced employee is a productive employee”), most employers want loyal employees who work longer hours, rewarding them with higher pay and better benefits.  (L. 11-13)  大多数雇主尽管口头上说得很漂亮(“生活作息保持平衡的雇员是效率高的雇员”),可他们需要的是忠心耿耿的、愿意超时间工作的雇员,并用高薪和更多的福利来奖励他们。

I know she’s unhappy, despite all her arguments to the contrary.

尽管她竭力说她很快乐,可我知道她并不幸福。(表示或证明)相反地

Although Bill was going to the movies, he __________(告诉乔他不去).

told Joe to the contrary

词语辨析:

to the contrary: ad. / a. 相反地/

on the contrary: ad. 相反地,反之(说明与前面叙述事物相反)

我相信你喜欢你的工作。可我恰恰相反。

I believe you like your job. On the contrary, I hate it!

5) hazard (L. 14)

Certainly, they hazard their jobs by working normal hours.  (L. 14-15)  他们只在正常时间内工作就肯定是在那自己的饭碗冒险

He hazarded his life to save the drowning child.

他冒着生命危险去救那个落水的孩子。(vt. risk)

She wouldn't hazard a guess about the reason why her parents separated.

她甚至不敢想父母离婚的原因。

______________(这栋旧楼是危房); they should put barriers around it before it collapses on someone.

The old building is a hazard (n. danger)

6) tend to do (L. 15)

Americans tend to become trapped in a working and spending consumption mode, driven by merchants, that leads them to rack up their expectations.   (L. 15-16)  美国人往往会陷入一种由商人们所鼓吹的工作---花钱消费的模式之中,这种模式引诱他们抬高了自己的期望植。

She will __________(往往会生气) if her husband goes home late.

tend to get angry

Some people ______________(周末往往较迟起床), especially after a busy week.

tend to get up later

处于压力下的人容易发挥自己全部的潜力。

People under stress tend to express their full range of potential.

7) not necessarily (L. 19) 

And we get paid for it and praised for it, which produces good feelings we may not necessarily to able to attain in other parts of our lives.  (L. 18-20)  我们还能因此得到报酬和表扬,这会给我们带来我们不一定能从生活的其他方面获得的良好感觉。

Frustrations are not necessarily bad things in life.

生活中的挫折未必就是坏事。(possibly but not certainly)

You may love someone ___________(不一定想与他/ 她结婚).

without necessarily wanting to marry him or her

 

Getting older __________(未必意味着) losing independence.

does not necessarily mean

8discharge ( L. 28)

People with high energy that needs discharging.   (L. 28) 精力充沛、需要释放的人。

The oil discharged into the sea seriously harmed a lot of birds and animals.

泄入大海的石油严重危害了大量鸟兽。 (v. give or send out)

The factory was taken to court because it ____________(将废物排到了河里).

discharged its waste into the river

 

9)competitive (L. 29)

Very competitive people who have a strong need to prove themselves and tie their self worth to their work.  (L. 29-30)  竞争心很强、急需证明自己、并把自我价值和工作联系起来的人。

He has always been ambitious and intensely competitive.

他一向踌躇满志、争强好胜。

我不愿与好胜心太强的人交朋友。

I don’t want to make friends with those who are too competitive.

How will such a small company ______________(在竞争性的商业社会中生存)?

survive in the competitive world of business

10) deny ( L. 38)

They deny the excessive time they’re devoting to work, and they rationalize that their schedule is for the family and essential to being promoted.   (L. 38-39)  他们否认自己在工作上花了太多的时间,他们自我辩解地说他们的工作是为了家庭,同时对升值也至关重要。

他否认一切, 甚至坚持指鹿为马。

He denied everything, even if he has to insist that black is white.

Notice that if “deny” is followed directly by another verb, the second verb has to be in the -ing form.

常用搭配:

deny (doing) sth. 否认(做过)某事

deny that…(clause) 否认……

There is no denying that …(clause) 很显然,……

你能否认你见过他吗?

Do you deny having seen him? (=Do you deny that you have seen him.)

很显然,她已知道事情的真相。

There is no denying that she has known the truth.

 

11) indispensable   (L. 40)

They also tend to view themselves and their work as indispensable and their working long hours as commitment to the company.   (L. 39-41)  他们也往往认为他们本人几他们的工作对公司是不可或缺的,他们超时工作是对公司的一种承诺。

Art is not the expression of man's emotions by external signs; it is not pleasure alone but it _____________(是人生必不可少的) and progress towards well being of individuals and humanity.

is indispensable for the life

艺术绝非仅是人类情感表达的外在符号,亦非仅仅是一种娱乐,而是生活不可或缺的成份,且对个人乃至整个人类的幸福不可缺少的。

She's become quite indispensable to the company.

她已成了公司里少不了的人。

12) ambition (L. 41)

Of course there is nothing wrong with their commitment, ambition and durable energy.  (L. 41-42)  当然他们的承诺、抱负和持久的精力均无可指责。

Caesar of the ancient Roman Empire was urged by his ambition to be a ruler . I came, I saw, I conquered., his ambition finally rendered him an unrivaled empire builder in the history of Rome.

古罗马帝国的凯撒时时以成为统治者的志向鞭策自己。我来了,我看见了, 我征服了,他最终成为了罗马史上无人可及的帝国建设者。

没有志向,一个人的潜能就像休眠的火山。

Without ambition ones potentials will remain slumbering like a dormant volcano.

温故知新:

This Central American country has one of the most ambitious programs in the world. (Unit2-A, Book II)

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