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新视野大学英语读写教程第二册课文学习辅导  

2010-06-05 09:20:17|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

    Unit 5    Section A   Weeping for My Smoking Daughter

I. Objectives
1.Skills: 
1) reading: Understanding Figurative Language 
2) writing: A paragraph of cause and effect
3) listening: understand the passages telling about effects of smoking

4) speaking: talk about your attitude toward smoking?

2.Vocabulary development:

1) words: grateful, harden, couple, hook, away, starve, make, batter, zone, helplessly

2)expressions: close at hand,  harden oneself against doing sth,  win over,  be hooked by, with sth stuck in,  leave sb low,  family reunion, direct at/against,  drag away,  sit by

3.Patterns:

1)独立主格子结构:逻辑主语(n. & pron.+介词词组 (现在分词/过去分词)

  2介词/介词短语+ which…
  3) It is/was not unusual for…to…  ……而言,……并不是不寻常的

 

II. Understanding and learning

1. Pre-reading activities (15 minutes)

1. 1 Background information

1. Camel cigarettes 骆驼烟

   

 

Camel is a popular cigarettes brand which was introduced by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco (RJR) in 1913. Camel cigarettes contain a blend of Turkish and American tobacco, which made them easier to smoke.

骆驼烟R.J. 雷诺斯烟草公司于1913年开始生产的一种流行的香烟品牌。骆驼烟中混合了土耳其和美国的烟草,从而使其抽起来口感更好。

 

2. Both Marlboro and Players are brand names of cigarettes manufactured by Philips Morris. (http://www.philipmorrisusa.com)

万宝路”和“运动员”是菲力浦·莫里斯公司生产的两种品牌的香烟。

   

Ad for Players Cigarettes                    Ad for Marlboro Cigarettes

 

3. Queen Victoria ( 1819-1901) 维多利亚女王

Victoria was born in 1819. Her reign lasted almost 64 years. Queen Victoria remains a remarkable figure in history not only for having been the longest reigning British monarch, but also as the inspiration for a highly complex culture.

维多利亚女王生于1819年,其统治时期长达64年。她成为历史上的一个杰出人物不仅是因为是英国历史上统治时间最长的君主,而且其在任期间促成了英国高度综合的文化体系。

   

Queen Victoria            Prince Albert

 

4. Prince Albert (1819 - 1861) 艾伯特亲王

Albert's role as advisor to Queen Victoria his wife came into full force after the death of Lord Melbourne, Whig Prime Minister. But Albert never really enjoyed great popularity during Victoria's reign, and it wasn't until 1857, when he was 38 years old, that he was recognized by the nation and awarded the title Prince Consort. He died of typhoid in 1861.

艾伯特亲王真正成为他妻子维多利亚女王有力的政治顾问是在其首相梅尔本子爵死后。但在维多利亚统治时期,艾伯特并没享有很高的声望。直到1857年,他38岁时,才得到国民的公认并授予女王夫君的称号。1861年死于伤寒症。

 

5. City of Eatonton伊顿顿市

Eatonton is a town in the state of Georgia ,USA. The city was named for diplomat and general, William Eaton of Connecticut. During the civil war, the city served as a haven for wounded soldiers.

伊顿顿是美国乔治亚州的一个城市。其名字来源于康涅狄格州的一个叫威廉·伊顿的外交官和将军。美国内战期间,该市成为伤员的避难所。

 

  

City of Eatonton                                City of Eatonton

 

6. Georgia乔治亚州

Georgia is one of America’s oldest and most interesting states. The area was originally occupied by the native Creek and Cherokee Indians who had lived in the region for centuries.

乔治亚州是美国最古老和最有趣味的一个州。几世纪以来,这里原先是当地印第安克里克族和切罗基族的居住地。

Georgia

 

 

7. Hollywood好莱坞

Hollywood is the center of the U.S. movie industry. In terms of geography, Hollywood refers to an area consisting of the City of West Hollywood and its vicinity that form part of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area.

好莱坞是美国电影业的中心。从地理方面看,好莱坞包含西好莱坞市及周边地区,是洛杉矶都市区的一个组成部分。

 

 

(以上这张图画是动画形式来表现Hollywood,动画必须在powerpoint中才能显示)

 

8. A battered women’s shelter受伤害妇女收容所

A battered women’s shelter is a safe place for women and children to escape from violent relationships. An example can be found at http://www.metrobatteredwomen.org.

受伤害妇女收容所是妇女儿童逃避家庭暴力的安全之地。

1.2 Topic-related video

1.3 Topic-related discussion:

1. Do you smoke? What is your attitude toward smoking?

2. If one of your family member smokes, are you willing to help him/her to stop smoking? If yes, how?

 

2. While-reading activities

2. 1 Global reading

2.1.1 Understanding the major details of the text

1. By the time the writer was 16, what effects did smoking cigarettes have on her father’s health?

   By that time, her father’s health was poor. Hid breathing was difficult; he had to rest very often when he was climbing stairs. It was not unusual for him to cough for an hour.

2. Why does the writer feel a deep hurt as a mother?

    She still remembers how carefully she ate when she was pregnant, and how patiently she taught her daughter how to cross a street safely. But now her daughter smokes, which amounts to killing herself by taking poison, as her grandfather did.

3. In the poor countries of the Third World, how is money spent that should go to food? And what results from that?

  Money that should be spent for food goes instead to the tobacco companies. As a result, over time, people starve themselves of both food and air, effectively weakening and hooking their children, eventually killing themselves.

2.1.2 Understanding the organization of the text

1. Main idea of the text

Feeling hurt at her daughter’s smoking and recalling how her father was killed by cigarettes, the writer gains a further insight into the harm of smoking, attacks the tobacco companies together with their advertisements and calls for people to stop smoking at families.

 

2. Division of the text

Part I (Paras.1)

I feel severely hurt at my daughter’s smoking.

Part II (Paras.2-5)

I recall how my father was hooked and eventually killed by cigarettes.

Part III (Paras.6-8)

I gain a better understanding of the harm of smoking in the Third World countries and call for people to stop smoking at families.

 

2. 2 Detailed reading

2. 2. 1  Words and Phrases

1)close/nearat /on handL.3

People often have their view of the important overshadowed by what is close at hand. (close by)

人们常因一叶障目而不见泰山。

当他们走到教堂背后时,听到附近有人声。

As they passed behind the church, they heard voices near at hand.

温故知新:

To us the impersonality of electronic communication has little or no relation to the significance of the matter at hand.Unit 1-A, Book II

就我们而言,电子交流的缺乏人情味与我们手头上事情的重要性之间很少有或完全没有关系。

2) gratefulL5

The victims of the disaster are grateful to the Party and government for their sincere care and help when they were in danger.  (a. thankful)

 

灾民们非常感激党和政府在他们危难之际给与的真诚关怀和帮助。

 

我跪了下来,感谢它的情与爱,并告诉它,生活里有了它我是多么感激。

I knelt down to thank him for his love and compassion and tell him how grateful I was he' d come into my life.

我们对你们及时而无私的援助真是感激不尽。

We cannot be thankful enough to you for your timely and unselfish help.

3) harden (L.7)

Life in the mountains hardened me until I felt no fear or weakness in mind or body. (v.  变得坚强,变得冷酷无情)

山里的生活使我变得坚强了,我心里再也不感到恐惧,身体也不那么虚弱了。

他对周围人的疾苦变得麻木不仁。

He became hardened to the suffering around him.

Notice that the suffix –en can be added to some adjectives or nouns to form verbs with the meaning of come t be or cause to be.

sharpen (削尖)   heighten (提高, 升高)   weaken (削弱)   broaden  (扩大, 加宽)  lengthen  (变长)   lighten (减轻)          darken  (变暗,变得阴沉)   redden  (变红)

4) couple with (L.17)

The name of Gates is always coupled with the talent in the field of software. ( be associated with)

Good natural environment, coupled with convenient water transportation, makes the area a hot spot for investment. together with

良好的自然环境,加上便利的水上交通运输使这个地区成为投资的热点。

他的智慧,配上她的耐心,克服了重重困难。

His intelligence, coupled with her patience, overcame all difficulties.

5) hook (L.21)

常用搭配:

get/ be hooked on / by

I am afraid Mike was hooked on that charming young lady.  (v. 沉迷, 上瘾)

我觉得迈克被那位漂亮的年轻女士迷住了。

由于缺乏自控能力,

一些青少年迷恋于网上游戏。

Unable to control themselves, some teenagers get hooked by online games.

 

6) be always doing (L.33)

The boy is always asking for money. (something happens again and again in an annoying way)

这孩子总在要钱。

我的祖父总是很健忘。

My grandfather is always forgetting things.

7) away (L.40)

It is not advisable just to work away without making a timely summing-up of experience. (ad. continuously)

一味埋头干下去不做及时的经验总结是不可取的。

那位年轻人象老朋友似的不停地聊着。

The young people chatted away like old friends.

8) starveL.42 

The got lost in the desert and starved to death. ( v. 饿死,挨饿)

常用搭配

starve of / for

The unsuccessful investment in the long-term project starved the company of funds for further development.v. 使缺乏

这个长期项目投资失败,使得该公司匮乏进一步发展所需要的资金。

The motherless children were starving for affection. (V. long for)

这些没有母亲的孩子渴望亲情。

Practice:

她为了减肥而忍饥挨饿。

She is starving herself to try to lose way.

这个地区的人们极需饮用水。

People in this region are starved of drinking water.

9) make (L.46)

Their success makes a good ending to the book. v. serve or function as sth..

他们的成功成为这部书圆满的结局。

冰茶成为夏天极佳的饮料。

Iced tea makes an excellent drink in summer.

10) batter (L.52)  

In the early years of reform, some people at home alleged that China's economy would be battered by foreign capital.  (v. 接连重击)

改革开放之初,中国国内有人认为,中国经济将会被外资挤垮。

大浪把船打得粉碎。

The heavy waves battered the ship to pieces.

11) zoneL.54

They have declared their country a nuclear-free zone.  n. 地域,区域)

他们宣布本国为无核区。

救援物资已空投到地震区。

Supplies were parachuted into the earthquake zone.

常用搭配:

parking /war / time/zone 停车场/战场/时区

industrial/residential/smoking zone 工业/住宅/吸烟区

torrid/ temperate/ frigid zone  //寒带

词语辨析:

zone 指地球上划分的五个地带,也可指地理上具有某特征、目的或用途的地区

area 泛指地理意义上任何面积的“地区、地域”,但不是严格的行政区划单位,也可指从房间、建筑物或其他地方划分出来的用于某种特殊用途的区域

region area有相似之处,但所指的范围更广泛,可指中央根据各种标准将整个国家所分成的有严格界限的大行政单位(如自治区、华东地区等),也可指地理上与周围地区有明显区别的较大自然地域,为无严格界限的大致区划。

a storage area in the basement   地下室的贮藏区

desert areas of North Africa     北非洲的沙漠地区

wilderness area               自然保护区

an autonomous region          自治区

mountainous region            山区, 山陵地区

rainless region                无雨区; 干旱区

the region of Eastern China      华东地区

12helplessly (L.55)

He helplessly watched the wave sweep his cap away.

他眼巴巴地看着帽子被海浪卷走了。

她无助地四下观望,寻找脱身之机。

She looked about her helplessly for a means of escape.

 

2. 2. 2 Sentence patterns

1) 原句:While she is doing her homework, her feet on the bench in front of her and her calculator clicking out answers to her geometry problems,

她做家庭作业时,脚搁在面前的长凳上,她的计算机嗒嗒地跳出几何题的答案。

句型分析:句中使用了独立结构,表示方式或伴随情况

 

句型提炼:                                 介词词组

逻辑主语(n. & pron.+          现在分词

                                          过去分词

The teacher entered the classroom, chalk in one hand, a textbook in the other.

The bell ringing, all the pupils went into the classroom.

He rushed into the room, his face covered with tears.

温故知新:

Very few arrive in the country with all the details worked out. ( Unit 4-A, Book II)

 很少有学生在到达这个国家时,就把一切细节都安排妥帖的。

Practice:

他的脊背朝天,四肢伸展,头枕着左臂,直挺挺地趴伏着。

He lay at full length upon his stomachhis head resting upon his left forearm.

广岛市市长双手捧着一束鲜花,迈着方步走向那个迷惑不解的记者。

The mayor of Hiroshima strode at a leisure pace toward the puzzled journalista bunch of flowers in his hands.

2) 原句:…they’re filtered, for which I am grateful. (L.4)

谢天谢地,那是有过滤嘴的。

 

句型分析:The word “which” is used here to refer back to the idea expressed by the whole previous clause.

句型提炼: …, …, 介词/介词短语+ which…

While there are things for which the foot may be too short, there are things for which the inch can be long enough. (Every person has weak points as well as strong)

尺短寸长。

The police arrived, after which the situation became calmer.

警察来了,这以后的局势比先前平静了一些。

他们改变计划了,因此取消参观工厂之行。

They changed their plan, due to which the visit to the factory was cancelled.

3) 原句:It was not unusual for him to cough for an hour.

         他常常一连咳上一个来小时。

句型提炼: It is/was not unusual for…to…  ……而言,……并不是不寻常的

在个人生涯中,一个人在相同行业里调换工作两次或者三次,这是屡见不鲜的事情。

 

It is not unusual for a person to change jobs in the same general field two or three times in the course of a career.

 

活跃在运动场上的运动员是那样的名扬遐尔,而一旦结束了体育生涯,就很快被人们所遗忘,这是不足为怪的。

It is not unusual for an athlete to be well-known while he is active and quickly forgotten when his athletic career is over.

 

2. 3 Guided writing

A paragraph of cause and effect

Paragraph structure: cause         effect

Let’s take paragraph 4 of passage A as an example:

The cause: I do not remember when he started to cough. Perhaps it was unnoticeable at first, a little coughing in the morning as he lit his first cigarette upon getting out of bed.

The effects: By the time I was sixteen, my daughter’s age, his breath was a wheeze, embarrassing to hear, he could not climb stairs without resting every third or fourth step. It was not unusual for him to cough for an hour.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Useful sentence patterns or phrases:

 

The cause:  There are several reasons why / for

           The reason for …are …

           The cause of …is …

           The reasons why…are as follows:

           …is the result of…

           …is caused by / due to/ because of

           because, since, now that, because of, as a result of, on account of, for this reason, owing to, due to, for, as

The effects: The result / effect/ consequence of…is..

          …will result in…

          Therefore, …

          As a result (of), …

          Thus, hence, consequently, so, accordingly, in view of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Practice:

Now write a short paragraph on “The Climate in the World is Growing Warmer”, which starts with a general statement (综述) that is followed by the cause and effects. Your paragraph should be in no less than 80 words .

Reference model :

For the last hundred years the climate has been growing much warmer. It may be caused by the excessive discharge of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Most of the carbon dioxide comes from the exhaust of factories and cars all over the world. As a result of the increasingly warmer climate, glaciers in both poles have been melting very rapidly since the beginning of the 20th century. The rising temperature also causes the snowline to retreat on mountains all over the world. And accordingly, the sea has been rising at a rapid increasing rate.

3. Post-reading

3. 1 Useful expressions

1) 随手仍在近旁 toss carelessly close at hand   (L.3)

2) 硬着心不做┅┅

to harden oneself against doing sth. (L.7) 

3) 说服,征得某人认可win over (L.20)

4)无可救药地患上烟瘾be hopelessly hooked by cigarettes  (L.21)

5) 嘴里叼着烟with a cigarette stuck in one’s mouth  (L.25)

6) 使┅┅虚弱不堪to leave sb. low  (L.32)

7) 家人团聚family reunion  (L.34)

8)针对;旨在引起注意

to direct at / against (L. 39)

9) 连续不断地抽烟

to drag away  (L. 40)

10) 深感痛苦to feel a deep hurt (L. 47)

11) 袖手旁观;守护照料to sit by  (L. 56)

 

3. 2 Summary of the text

 

Summarize the passage using the tips below.

  1) A mother weep weeps because…

  2) the same brand of cigarettes that killed her grandfather.

  3) not look elegant or fashionable as the advertisements showed

  4) health was getting worse and worse

  5) eventually died from

  6) travel to Third World countries

  7) the money on cigarettes should be…

  8) a form of self-battering

  9) stop smoking at least at families

 

 

 

Suggested answer:

A mother weep because her daughter is smoking the same kind of cigarettes that killed her grandfather. Her father  picked up the habit of smoking very early. he did not look elegant or fashionable as the advertisements showed. His health was getting worse and worse, and eventually died from “the poor man’s friend”, pneumonia.  However, when the author travel to Third World countries, many people just smoke like her father and her daughter. In fact, the money on cigarettes should be spent for food. Smoking is a form of self-battering that also batters their relatives and the people around them, thus, to avoid more tragedies, everyone must stop smoking at least at families. 

 

 

3. 3 Assignment:

1) Finish all the exercises related to Section A of Unit 5.

2) Preview Section B, including reading skills, the passage and the related exercises.

3) Written work: Write a paragraph about “The Climate in the World is Growing Warmer”.

4) Oral Exercise: Paragraph recitation Paragraph 5 of Section A.

 

 

 

 

Unit 5  Section B

          Stop Spoiling :Your Children

1. Reading Skill

Understanding Figurative Language
Introduction

To make language clearer, more interesting, and more striking, all of us use expressions which are not literally true. We make comparisons in speaking and writing. Figurative language—language that compares—paints a picture for the reader. Figurative language can be confusing if it is understood literally. The ability to recognize and interpret or explain figurative language may help us fully understand a writer’s point.

Look at the following examples taken from Reading Passage A:

 

1) For what, I sometimes wonder; so that she can struggle to breathe through most of her life feeling half her strength, and then die of self-poisoning, as her grandfather did? (Para. 7)

2) There is a quotation from a battered women’s shelter that I especially like: “Peace on earth begins at home.” (Para. 8)
    3) Smoking is a form of self-battering that also batters those who must sit by, occasionally joke or complain, and helplessly watch. (Para. 8)

   

Here in all three examples, smoking is compared to a form of self-poisoning and self-destroying, thus making the evil effects of smoking cigarettes more alarming.

There are many different ways of using figurative language. Listed here are just a few of them:

a) Similes (明喻, 直喻), figurative expressions which directly compare one thing to another by using the words as or like.

The tobacco industry, coupled with Hollywood movies in which both male and female heroes smoked like chimneys, ... (Para. 3, Reading Passage A, Unit 5).
     In this sentence, “...smoked like chimney” means “... smoked heavily and continuously”, but the comparison between the two makes the idea clearer and more imaginative.

 

b) Metaphors (暗喻), in which comparisons are only implied, without using as, like and the like.

The tobacco industry ... completely won over people like my father, who were hopelessly hooked by cigarettes. (Para. 3, Reading Passage A, Unit 5)
  
 In this sentence, the idea of people relying on smoking is expressed as that of people being hooked by cigarettes. “Hook” is commonly used in relation to fishing and just as fish are hooked and cannot get away so are cigarette smokers. This implied, parallel image makes the thought more striking and powerful. 

 

c) Personification (拟人), figurative expressions which compare non-human things to humans.

 

My father died from “the poor man’s friend,” pneumonia, one hard winter when his lung illnesses had left him low. (Para. 5, Reading Passage A, Unit 5)

Personification (拟人) .

 In this sentence, pneumonia, a disease often visited upon poor people, is compared to “the poor man’s friend” and we can feel the power of language easily.  

2. Text Reading

1) spoil (title)

The little girl is terribly spoiled; her parents give her everything she asks for. (v. 宠坏, 溺爱)

那个小女孩被宠坏了;她要什么,父母就给她什么。

Don' t spoil your appetite by eating sweets before meals. (v.损坏,破坏)

饭前不要吃糖以免影响食欲.

 

词语辨析:

injure 表示对外貌、健康造成伤害。

 

harm hurt 主要指那些带来痛苦、悲伤、损失或损害的.

 

spoil 是损坏和彻底摧毁价值、优点和力量,表示无可挽回的损坏.

约翰从树上摔下来把背部摔伤了。

 

John fell down from the tree and injured his back.  

 

两国关系受到了很大的伤害。

The relationship between the two countries has been greatly harmed.

他的所作所为很不负责,他可能已经得罪了一些人。

His behavior was very irresponsible ; he might have hurt somebody.

2) overnight (L.1)

Mother let us go to the party, but when it came to staying overnight, she put her foot down firmly.  (ad.一夜间;在晚上)

母亲允许我们去参加晚会, 但要说到过夜, 她可决不答应.

一夜之间,他输光了所有的钱,一文不名。

He lost all his money and was penniless overnight.

3) assign (L.2)

They’ve assigned their best man to the job.  (vt.分配, 指派)

他们选派了最得力的人去担负这项工作。

Shall we assign Thursday for our weekly meetings?   

把星期四定为我们的周会日好吗?

4) barely (L.4)

We exert huge effort in hiding aspects of ourselves that others would barely notice.  (ad. 几乎不能)

其实别人不一定注意到,我们却花大力气去掩盖。

小山隐没在薄雾中难以看清。

The hills were barely visible through the mist.

常用搭配:

barely…when … hardly/scarcely…when..: …………

(注意:barely hardly/scarcely 放句首,主谓要倒装。)

I had barely entered the room when the telephone rang. ad.仅仅, 刚刚

Barely had I entered the room when the telephone rang.

我刚进屋电话就响了。

5) tendency (L.5)

There has been a strong tendency for more women of working age to participate in the labor force.   (n. 趋势,倾向)

出现了达到工作年龄的妇女更多地加入到劳动大军中去的趋势。

在美国, 冬季失业率有上升的趋势。

There is a tendency for job losses to rise in the winter in the States.

温故知新:

Because many electrical companies consider nuclear energy too expensive, the trend is toward less dangerous sources of energy.  Unit 9-B, Book I

由于许多电气公司都认为核能代价太大,因此总体趋势是朝着危害较小的能源发展。

词语辨析:

tendency 多以单数形式出现,常后接代词to, towards或动词不定式,用于someone /something has a tendency to / towards / to do sth结构中表示人或物有做某事或容易受到某种影响的趋势,可译为“总爱、总好、生性喜欢”;

trend 常以复数形式出现,指时局或其他事物发展的“方向、趋势”,不表示人的主观倾向。

Milk has a tendency to go sour in hot weather.

天气热,牛奶容易变酸。

Economic trends are running counter to the forecasts.

 

经济发展趋势与预测的结果截然相反.

Society is always advancing, for to advance, to develop, is the general trends.

社会总是前进的,前进是个总的趋势,发展是个总的趋势。

 

6) take …for granted (L.7)

He just takes it for granted that the home is clean. 认为真实,视为理所当然

 

他认为把房子收拾整洁是理所应当的。

 

不要想当然地认为机会会落到你头上,你需要靠自己努力去把握。

Don’t take it for granted that opportunity will fall upon you, you should make your efforts to seize it.

7) somewhat (L.8)

Social customs vary somewhat across the country, but in general, people tend to be friendlier and more informal as you travel farther to the western part of the country.  (ad. to some degree, rather)

美国各地的社会风俗因地而异,但大致上,越往美国西部,人们越友好。

他的演技给我的印象是有点做作。

His acting impressed me as being somewhat artificial.

8) accommodation (L.13)

The two sides failed to agree on every point but came to an accommodation. (n.和解,调解)

双方未能在每一点上都取得一致,但达成了和解。

如果劳资双方不能达成妥协,就会发生罢工。

If labor and management don’t reach an accommodation, there will be a strike.

We offer first-class hotel accommodations for you. ( n. (pl.)  住宿,食宿)

我们为你提供一流的旅馆住宿。

你能为三十人提供住宿吗?

Can you provide accommodations for thirty people?

9) along with (L.15)

I'm sending you the book along with the material concerned. (一道)

书和有关资料一并寄上。

在大多数国家里,烟和酒一道课税。

Tobacco is taxed in most countries, along with alcohol.

The educators should pay special attention to the fact that __________(身心必须同时得到发展).the body must be developed along with the mind   

If the color TV set breaks down in three months, _______________(请把它连同发票一起带回商店).just bring it back to the store, together with your receipt.

温故知新:

 

But a series of new environmental laws, together with the creation of parks and nature preserves that cover one-quarter of the country, are aimed at protecting Costa Rica's remaining forests. Unit 2-A, Book II

但是人们制定了一系列新的环境保护法,还新建了占四分之一国土面积的公园和自然保护区,目的是要保护哥斯达黎加现存的森林。

The tobacco Industry, coupled with Hollywood movies in which both male and female heroes smoked like chimney, completely won over people like my father, who were hopelessly hooked by cigarettes. (Unit 5-A, Book II)

烟草业,再加上好莱坞电影—影片中的男女主角都是老烟鬼—把像我父亲那样的人完完全全争取了过去,他们无可救药地抽烟上了瘾。

10) stand up to (L.20)

Why don’t you stand up to your boss when you know you are right. (勇敢面对)

你明知道自己是对的,为什么不敢当面对你的老板说呢?

Will the lorries stand up to the journey over rough roads?  (经得起)

货车能经得起这颠簸不平的路途吗?

11) variability (L.24)

This favorable overall result conceals some variability.   n.变化性,变化的倾向

这样一种有利的总的结果也包含着一些不确定的因素。

常用搭配:

biological variability   生物差异

genetic variability  遗传变异性

variable  a.

British weather is perhaps at its most variable in the spring.  a. 易变的,多变的)

英国的气候或许是在春天最为反复无常的。

物价跟着汇率变动。

Prices are variable according to the exchanges.

词语辨析:

variability  n.变化性,变化的倾向

variable n. 变量

variation n. 变化,变异

variety  n. 品种; 多样化

Diferent varieties of plant canbe foud here. 这里有各种不同的植物。

She doesn’t like to wear the same clothes---- she likes varieties.

她不喜欢传统一种样式的衣服, 她喜欢多样化。

Temperature and rainfall are variable. 气温和降雨量是变量。

  The prices for food are subject to variation. 食品的价格可能变更。

 

12) sour (L.25) 

Relations between the two governments were soured by boundary fighting. v.使变坏,使恶化

两国关系由于边境冲突而恶化。

 

这种行动必然会恶化两国之间的和睦气氛。

This kind of action was bound to sour the peaceful atmosphere between the two countries.

 

13) conversely (L.35) 

Running can strengthen your heart and muscles, but conversely, it can also damage your knees and the bones in your feet. (ad. 相反地,另一面)

跑步能增强你的心脏和肌肉功能,但反过来也可能损伤你的膝盖和脚部骨骼。

你可以把水加到面粉里,或者反过来,把面粉加到水里。

You can add the water to the power or conversely, the powder to the water.

 

14) submit (L.46)  相形词summit (unit2, 查语料库)

We protested about the changes for a long time, but in the end we had to submit. v. give way

我们对这种改变已抗议了很长时间,但最终还是不得不屈服。

我拒绝服从于他的控制。

I refuse to submit myself to his control

.

温故知新:

In Flagstaff, Arizona, a thousand miles of bike trails lead into the San Francisco Peaks, the highest summit in the state. Unit 2-B, Book II

在亚利桑那州的弗来格斯达佛市,有1000英里长的自行车道通向圣弗朗西斯科山峰,那是该州的最高峰。

15) bound (L.50) 

常用搭配:

be bound to…

They have done so much work that they are bound to pass the exam. (a. 一定,必定)

他们付出了很大努力,一定会通过考试。 

建立在金钱基础上的婚姻是肯定要破裂的。

The marriage on the basis of money is bound to break up.

 

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