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新视野大学英语读写教程第二册课文学习辅导  

2010-06-05 08:58:09|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 6   Section A  As His Name Is, So is He!

                      

I. Objectives
1.Skills:
1)reading: Reading for the Main Ideas in Paragraphs
2)writing: A Paragraph of Comparison and Contrast
3)listening: understanding the passages about names and name culture, listening for the main idea and the important details, learning to take notes while listening
4)speaking: talking about names< xmlnamespace prefix ="o" ns ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

2.Vocabulary development:
1)words:
substitute  approval  reserve  latter  qualify     press for   confess    thoughtful    consistently   award

2)expressions:  to feel like  to substitute A for to feel comfortable with to take sth./sb. seriously to add self-confidence t to be descriptive of…for better or worse to convey to to attach ... to…to press for to be ill at ease free from…to be guilty of…to project  ... on sb. to take charge of…to push sb. to do sth to stick with… / to be stuck with…

3. Patterns

1. Naturally, sb. / sth. does not cause / lead to / result in but sb. / sth. surely helps if only by doing…. 当然,某一结果并不是由某人或某物带来的,但这肯定给某人带来好处/坏处,虽说仅仅是……

2. Despite… / For all…, sb. did manage to do sth.. Even so, sb. else refuses to…, doing sth. else instead.

尽管……,某人设法做了某事。即使如此,他人仍拒绝……,而是……

3. A recent (latest ) survey (study / investigation / poll) (conducted / done / taken by…) shows (reveals / indicates / finds) that sb. thinks…, while sb. else believes

最新调查表明:某人认为……,而其他人则认为……

II. Teaching arrangement

1. Total class time for this unit: 8 periods

2. Suggested arrangement:
1) pre-reading activities: 15-20'
2)understanding the structure of text A: 25-30'
3) detailed study of the language: 45'
4) writing skills: 15'

5) text summary < xmlnamespace prefix ="st1" ns ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />10’
6) exercises: 20'
7) reading skills: 15'
8) detailed study of of text B: 45'

9) comprehensive exercises: 30'
10) supplementary reading and vocabulary exercises: 45'
11) listening
speaking :  90’

 

1. Pre-reading

1. 1 Background information

Debbie (f.) represents the personality characteristics of generous, understanding, honest, creative, and intense. It is a short name of Deborah originally from a Hebrew name for a woman described in the Old Testament history of the Bible.

戴比(): 源自旧约圣经》中描绘的一位希伯来妇女Deborah, 代表着慷慨大方\善解人意\诚实\有创造性\热情等性格特点。

Lynne (f.) or Lynn (m.) represents the personality characteristics of sensitive, deeply artistic and creative, intense and nature-lover and comes from Welsh meaning “lake” or is a short form of Linda (Spanish), or Belinda (Italian), both meaning “beautiful”.

林恩() 或林 (): 源自威尔士语湖泊”, 代表着敏感\有艺术才能和创造性\热情和热爱大自然等性格特点; 也是西班牙语Linda, 意大利语Belinda的缩写, 意为 美丽

Harry (m.) represents the personality characteristics of individual, reserved, serious, stubborn, alone, loyal, and thoughtful. It is the Medieval English form of Henry, the name of eight kings of England.

哈里(): 是英格兰八位国王Henry的中世纪英语形式, 代表着有个性\谨慎\严肃\固执\孤独\忠诚和富于思想等性格特点。

Susan (f.) represents the personality characteristics of pleasant, easy-going, friendly, patient, social, cautious and is a short form of Susanna. It is from the Hebrew Shoshanna name for a woman in the Old Testament history of the Bible.

苏珊(): 苏珊娜的缩写, 源自旧约圣经》的女性名字Shoshanna, 代表着令人喜爱\为人随和\友善\耐心\善交际\小心谨慎等性格特点。

Michael (m.) represents the personality characteristics of clever, responsible, serious, self-confident and independent and is from the Hebrew name Mikha’el meaning “who is like God”. The New Testament of the Bible identifies Michael as the archangel who leads heaven’s armies. He is the patron saint of soldiers.

迈克尔(): 源自希伯来名字Mikha’el (像上帝的人), 代表着聪明\严肃\自信\独立等性格特点。新约圣经》将之描绘成领导天国军队的天使长, 是战士的守护神

Elmer (m.) represents the personality characteristics of shrewd, aggressive, decisive, self-centred, and independent and comes from Old English, meaning “noble, famous”.

埃尔默(): 源自古英语,意为 高贵\著名。代表着聪慧\有进取心\果断\自我为中心\独立等性格特点。

Linda (f.) represents the personality characteristics of hard worker, careful, patient, independent, reliable, and practical and comes from Spanish or Italian, meaning “beautiful.

琳达(): 源自西班牙语/意大利语, 意为 美丽。代表着勤劳\细心\耐心\独立\可靠\讲究实际等性格特点。

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1. 2 Topic-related listening/video

2. While-reading

2. 1 Global reading

2. 1. 1 Understanding the major details of the text

1) What are some of the ways names can make a difference? Please give at least two example from the text to illustrate you point.

Names can make a great difference to a person. For example, after using her middle name, a

woman felt more confident and consequently made considerable achievement in her career. Another case in point is best provided by the fact that a magazine refused to print the writer’s name just because it sounded more suitable for a baseball player than an art critic. As similar facts, we may see an uncomfortable woman at a party, who was eager to meet the same man she had refused a blind date because of his name.

 

 

2) In what way can teachers be guilty of name prejudice?

Although names can leave us good impression or add some confidence to people’s abilities, we tend to hold prejudices to people because of their names. One typical example can be taken from the classroom, where some teachers gave very low grades to the essays written by boys with certain names, but they gave higher grades to the very same essays with only the names changed.

 

3) What does the writer suggest you do if your name does not suit you?

As is known to all, names only serve as distinctive signs in social contacts. However, as people become more conscious of the effects names exert upon them, they are paying an increasing attention to the art of choosing names. Anyway, your names should be attractive and charming, and contribute to your achievement. Therefore, if you find your name unsuitable for you, the best way out is to change your name, which will perhaps bring you good luck and success.

2. 1. 2 Understanding the organization of the text

1) Main idea of the text

This article shows the relationship between one’s character and one’s name. Names can bring you good fortune, the defiance of others’, confidence, self-contempt. If your name doesn’t suit you, you should change it as soon as possible because we know that names can affect your life greatly.

2) Division of the text

Part I  (Para. 1-2)

The experience of Debbie (Lynne) shows_____________________.

(the importance of one’s name)

Part II  (Paras. 3-7)

    Names can put _______________ or _____________ effects on your life.

    (positive, negative)

Part III  (Para. 8)

If it is necessary, you should _______________________.

(change your name)

2. 2 Detailed reading

2. 2. 1 Words and Phrases

1) substitute (L. 5) 

One day, while filling out an application form for a publishing job, the young woman impulsively substituted her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. (L. 4-5) 一天,在填写出版工作申请表时,这位小姐一时冲动,用她的中名林恩替换了她的名字戴比。

I have a packed time-table this week. Could you substitute for me at the meeting at the head office?

这星期我的日程表排得很满,你能替到总公司开会吗? (v. replace)

The coach_________________(换上史密斯换下琼斯) in the second half of the match.

substituted Smith for Jones     (v. use sb. to replace sb. else)

There is ________________(没有能替代) wise eating and regular exercise if you want to keep fit.

no substitute for    (n. a thing that replaces for sth. else)

词语辨析:

substitute: A substitutes for B  A代替B

              substitute A for B  A来代替B

replace: replace sb. / sth.…  换掉某人/某物……

              replace A with / by B  B替换A

Under such conditions, we should not _________ impulsive behavior ________ calm thinking.

substitute… for

We have decided to send you a new washing machine to ________ the old one in relation to the complaint you have made.

replace

The airline decides to _________ its small planes _________ Boeing 747s.

replace …with

2) approval / disapproval  (L. 18)

…and Webster’s Dictionary includes the following definition of name: “a word or words expressing some quality considered characteristic or descriptive of a person or a thing, often expressing approval or disapproval”.  (L. 14-18) 此外韦伯斯特大词典也对名字作了如下的定义:“表达某种特点的一个或几个字,这种特点被认为反映了某人或某事的本质,或描述了某人某事,常表示嘉许不赞成的意思。”

approve  (vi.)  feel that sth. is good            approval  (n.)

disapprove  (vi.) feel that sth. is bad            disapproval  (n.)

People at large ___________ of the new policy.   approve

Do the plans meet with your ___________?      approval

He expressed his ___________ of what they had done.     disapproval / approval

She ___________ of the arrangements for the wedding.     disapproved / approved

温故知新:

Indonesians have tradionally favored large families, and their major religion, Islam, frowns on birth control. ( Unit 2-A, Book II)

3) reserve  (L. 21) 矜持,拘谨

For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or reserve, plainness or charm may be suggested by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you.   (L. 19-23)

不管是好是歹,诸如友好或拘谨,相貌平常或漂亮妩媚等品质已经和你的名字连在了一起,甚至在他人见到你本人之前就已经知道你的这些品质了。

He was a man of such reserve that not even his closest friends really understood him.

他说话如此谨慎以致于他最亲近的朋友都不了解他。  (n.U〕矜持,拘谨)

He told me all about it ____________(毫无保留地).

without reserve   (n.C/Uthings kept for future use)

The first three rows of the hall _________________(留给客人)

are reserved for guests   (v. keep sth. for a particular purpose)

常用搭配:

in reserve  /储备的        with reserve  附带条件地      without reserve 无条件地

4) convey …to …  (L. 23)

For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or reserve, plainness or charm may be suggested by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you.    (L. 19-23) 不管是好是歹,诸如友好或拘谨、相貌平常或漂亮妩媚等品质特征已经和你的名字连在一起,甚至在他人见到你这个人之前就已经知道了你的这些品质和特征。

Convey my best wishes to the newly-wedded couple.

向新婚夫妇转达我最良好的祝愿。  (转达)

The ambassador personally ________________(将总统的口信转达给) the premier..

conveyed the President’s message to

I tried to ___________(表达我的同情) by touching her hand.

convey my sympathy

5) attach …to …  (L. 24)

Names become attached to specific images, as anyone who’s been called “a plain Jane” or “just an average Joe” can show.   (L. 24-25) 名字已成为特定形象的组成部分,任何一个被称为“相貌平常的珍妮”或“普普通通的乔”的人都能证明这一点。

In order to improve people's living standard, we should attach first importance to the development of the economy.

为提高人民的生活水平,我们应把经济的发展放在首位。 (give emphasis to)

Different people attach different meanings to words.

人们对词语的解释各不相同。(connect… with…)

Mary attaches herself dearly to her grandmother.

玛丽热爱她的祖母。   (be fond of)

6) latter   (L. 25)

The latter name particularly bothers me since my name is Joe, which some think makes me more qualified to be a baseball player than, say, an art critic.  (L. 25-26)  后面的个名字特别使我烦恼,因为我的名字也叫乔。有些人认为这个名字使我更适合于做一个棒球运动员,而不是,比如说,艺术评论家。

I didn’t understand ______________(演讲的后半部分).

the latter part of the speech.  (a. 后面的)

Ken and Mary came, _______________(后者穿着红色的衣服).

the latter wearing a red dress     (n. 后者)

Many support the former plan, but personally I’m for the latter.

许多人支持前面那个计划,但我个人赞同后者。(formerlatter)

约翰和詹姆斯是兄弟,前者是个老师,后者是个工程师。

John and James are brothers. The former is a teacher; the latter is an engineer.

7) qualify   (L. 26)

The latter name particularly bothers me since my name is Joe, which some think makes me more qualified to be a baseball player than, say, an art critic.  (L. 25-26) 后面的哪个名字特别使我烦扰,因为我的名字也叫乔。有些人认为这个名字使我更适合于做一个棒球运动员而不是,比如说,艺术评论家。

Although you have graduated from the university, a first degree in English does not __________(使你有资格教英语).qualify you to teach English   (v. 使合格)

She does not ___________(胜任口译员的工作); she has a superficial knowledge of that foreign language.

qualify for an interpreter  (v. 使胜任)

Some nursing experience is a __________(这份工作的必要条件).

necessary qualification for this job   (n. 资格,条件)

常用搭配

qualify as  ……资格              qualify for  (使)……资格

qualify to do  够资格()            qualify sb. to do sth.  使某人够资格()

8) press for   (L. 35) 

Several evenings later, she came up to me at a party, pressing for an introduction to a very impressive man; they’d been exchanging glances all evening.  (L. 35-36)  几天后的一个晚会上,她走到我身边,催逼着我把她介绍给一个给人以深刻印象的男人;他们俩整个晚上都在互送秋波。

The government finally took some action because the public had been __________(一再坚持调查) the question.

pressing for inquiry into  (v. 反复请求)

They agreed to___________(敦促大会处理) the problem.

press for the conference to deal with

The workers _______________(极力要求提高工资).

pressed for higher wages

9) be guilty of  (L. 39)

Though most of us would like to think ourselves free from such prejudiced notions, we’re all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent.  (L. 38-39) 虽然我们中大多数人会认为自己没有这样的偏见,但在某种程度上,我们都有对名字产生固定看法的毛病。

She was found guilty of murder in the first degree.

她被判一级谋杀罪。 (be to blame for)

I _________(感到很内疚) not having written to you for so long.

feel really guilty about  (feeling guilt)

The judge imposed a fine of $100 on the guilty man.

法官对该罪犯处以一百美元的罚款。(a .having done wrong)

10) confess   (L. 39)

Confess. Wouldn’t you be surprised to meet a carpenter named Nigel? (L.39-40) 老老实实地坦白:你碰到一个名叫奈杰儿的木匠会不会感到惊讶呢?

Eg.好吧,老实说,我同意你所说的,但你能不能具体点?

Well, I confess. I might agree with what you say, but could you be a little more specific? (v. admit often unwillingly)

When asked who had stolen the apples, little boy __________________(承认是他干的).

confessed that he had done it

11) thoughtful   (L. 43)

There I was, trying to get a little active boy named Julian to sit quietly and read a book ---and pushing a thoughtful creature named Rory to play ball.  (L 42-44) 在托儿所里,有一次我想叫一个名字为朱利安的、活跃的小男孩静静地坐下来看书,同时把一个喜欢沉思的、名叫罗里的孩子推出去打球。

The doctor looked thoughtful for a moment and then started to write something on the paper.

医生认真思考了一会儿,然后开始在纸上写着。(a. thinking deeply)

Thank you for phoning to see if I was feeling better it was very thoughtful of you.

谢谢你挂电话来问候我,你想的真周到(体贴人)。(a. =considerate

It was very thoughtful of you to make all the necessary arrangements for me.

你为我做了这些安排,你想的真周到。

12) consistently   (L. 47)

…, teachers gave consistently lower grades on essays apparently written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they awarded to the same papers when the writer’s names were given as Michael and David.  (L 47-49) 与名叫迈克尔和戴维的作文卷子相比,教师老是给卷上名字为埃尔默和休伯特的男孩写的文章打较低的分数,实际上这是同样的两份卷子。

温故知新:

The trick is to be consistently you, at your best.  (L26 Unit 4-A, Book I)

诀窍在于要始终如一地保持自我,保持你最佳状态的自我。

We must try to keep up a consistently high standard.

我们必须一直保持着高水平。

Once you've worked out your policy, you should make it clear it applies to all staff, at all levels, and you should __________(随时准备公正地始终如一地贯彻该政策).

be prepared to use it fairly and consistently

词语辨析:

consistent:  conform to a regular pattern or style (人、言行、文章等)前后一致的

 

continuous:  going on without break (时间上、空间上)连续的,不断的

 

constant:  going on all the time, unchanging 不变的,持续的

 

The sign in the cinema said: “___________ performance from 1:00 pm to 11:30 am.” Continuous

Unfortunately, some children who see _______ violence on TV can find a sanction for violent acts of their own.  constant

You must be __________. If you punish Paul, you must punish Jason for doing the same thing.  consistent

13) award  (L. 48)

Martin Ruther King Jr. was awarded the peace Nobal Prize of 1964 for advocating nonviolence policy in the movement for civil rights.

小马丁.路德.金因为主张民权运动中采取非暴力政策而被授予1964年诺贝尔和平奖。

公司奖给他一个金杯,以感谢他为公司发展所作出的创造性成就。

He was awarded a gold cup in acknowledgment of his creative achievements for the development of the company.温故知新:

Learning a foreign language was one of the most difficult yet most rewarding experiences of my life. (L.1-2, Unit 1-A, Book I) 学外语是我生活中最艰苦也是最有意义的经历。

词语辨析:

award: vt. give esp. as the result of a official decision 授予

      n. sth. awarded 奖金,奖品

reward: vt. Give sth. in return for good and valuable doings 报答,酬谢

       n. sth. as a return for good and valuable doings 报答,奖赏

       n. some money given to someone for his good doings 酬金

If you don't show certain characteristics, people may not _________ you the respect you merit. Award

The father ___________ the little boy for cleaning the room.  rewarded

The head of department presented an ___________ of $500 to schoolgirl Caroline because of her excellent performance at school.  award

As a __________ for passing the exams, she got a new bike from her parents.  reward

14) stick with   (L. 58)

If your name no longer seems to fit you, don’t despair; you aren’t stuck with the label. (L 57-58)

如果你的名字看上去不再与跟你想配时,不要苦恼;你不必一辈子用这个名字。

Only a few could stick with an ideal in reality. 

生活中只有少部分人能够坚持自己的理想。 (keep staying with )

 

She bought an old car and _________(无法脱手).

got stuck with it .  (cannot get rid of)

During the Spring Festival many relatives came to Beijing to see the sights. We were__________(不得不接待这些不速之客).

stuck with unexpected visitors

 

 

2. 2. 2 Sentence patterns

1) 原句: Naturally, the name change didn’t cause Debbie / Lynne’s professional achievement but it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. (L. 10)

当然,戴比(或林恩)的职业成就并不是改名带来的但是这肯定给带来了好处虽说改名字仅使她对自己的才能增加了一点自信

句型提炼

Naturally, sb. / sth. does not cause / lead to / result in but sb. / sth. surely helps if only by doing…. 当然,某一结果并不是由某人或某物带来的,但这肯定给某人带来好处/坏处,虽说仅仅是……

 

当然,某一结果并不是由某人或某物带来的,但这肯定给某人带来好处/坏处,虽说仅仅是……

应用:

当然,后舍男生的恶搞并不会破坏原唱歌曲,但它的确会给歌曲带来后遗症,虽说仅仅是使人在听歌曲产生了滑稽的联想。

 

Naturally, the housheboys kusoing does not lead to the ruining of the image of  the original song but it surely has side effects if only by leaving a bit of fun flavor on the song .

当然,事实已经证明仅仅依靠科技是不能拯救地球的,但科技的不断进步确实改善了环境,虽说仅仅是起了减轻污染的危害程度。

Naturally, reality had demonstrated that relying on science and technology alone will not lead to the success of  environmental campaign but its advancement surely helps better our environment  if only by alleviating the level of pollution.

 

 

2) 原句: Yet , despite this disadvantage, I did manage to become an art critic for a time. Even so, one prominent magazine consistently refused to print “Joe” in my by-line, using my first initials, J.S., instead. (L. 27)

然而,尽管有此不利,我确实曾一度设法成为了一名评论家。即使如此一家著名的杂志一直拒绝作为我的文章的作者署名,而是用我名字的首字母J.S来代替它

句型提炼:

Despite… / For all…, sb. did manage to do sth.. Even so, sb. else refuses to…, doing sth. else instead.

尽管……某人设法做了某事。即使如此,他人仍拒绝……,而是……

 

应用:

尽管困难重重,他坚持不断练习,从不气馁。但即使如此,教练还是拒绝让他首发,而是让他当替补。

Despite all the barriers, he kept practicing, never giving it up. Even so, his coach still refused to give him a chance to make his debut, asking him to be a substitute.

尽管报酬低,条件差, 农民工们还是顶着寒风烈日,夜以继日地在工地上忙碌。即使如此,工头还是拒付工资,打了白条。

Despite the low pay and poor working condition, the rural migrant workers work day and night on the construction site, rain or shine. Even so, the contractor refused to pay them, issuing IOU notes instead.

 

 3) 原句A recent survey showed that American men thought Susan to be the most attractive female name, while women believed Richard and David were the most attractive for men. (L.32)

最新调查表明美国男人认为苏珊是最有吸引力的女性名字,而女性则认为查里德和戴维是男人中最有吸引力的名字。

 

句型提炼A recent (latest ) survey (study / investigation / poll) (conducted / done / taken by…) shows (reveals / indicates / finds) that sb. thinks…, while sb. else believes

最新调查表明:某人认为……,而其他人则认为……

 

应用:

对大学毕业生做的一次调查表明:相当一部分人认为高薪和好福利是择业首选,而大部分人则认为做感兴趣的和有价值的工作更吸引他们。

A survey conducted among college graduates  indicates that quite a few people think a job with high salary and good welfare is top choice, while most of them believe doing some thing enjoyable and worthwhile at work is more  attractive.

调查表明:一部分人认为年龄是女性就业和再就业的第一瓶颈,而一部分人则认为缺少职业技能是影响她们择业的另外一个因素。

The survey shows some people believe that age is the first bottleneck in womens employment and reemployment while some hold that  lack of professional skills is another factor that affects their job opportunities.

 

2. 3 Guided writing:

A Paragraph of Comparison and Contrast (比较对照)

The writer of this reading passage tries to convince the readers of the idea of “As his name is, so is he”. To prove it, many comparisons have been made to help bring out the point.

Paragraph 7 is a very good example of this kind of structure or writing method.

Apparently, such prejudices can affect classroom achievement as well. In a study conducted by Herbert Harari of San Diego State University, and John McDavid of Georgia State University, teachers gave consistently lower grades on essays apparently written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they awarded to the same papers when the writers names were given as Michael and David. (L.45-49, Unit 6-A, Book I)

Analysis:

A point of view: Apparently, such prejudices can ______________

affect classroom achievement as well.

Parts being compared: The same papers presented by different names.

1. Essays apparently written by boys _____________

named Elmer and Hubert.

2. __________ when the writer’s names were given as Michael and David.

The same papers

Comparison result: Teachers gave ___________ to papers with names such as Elmer and Hubert than to those with names like Michael and David.

consistently lower grades

       Here are some points for your attention while writing a paragragh of comparison and contrast:

1) Comparison and contrast are used to explain the similarities and / or differences between two things. Facts may often be given to show how two things are different or alike.

2) You will find it advisable to choose the most significant points for comparison that would support the central idea of the paragraph. For instance, if you were comparing Elmer and Michael in order to show that one is better as a professor, you would choose teaching style as the point of comparison and contrast. Other points, such as life style and age would be irrelevant.

3) You can organize comparison and contrast through two major ways. One way is to examine one subject thoroughly and then start the other, which is called One-Side-at-a-Time Method. The other way is to examine two subjects at the same time, discussing them point by point, which is known as Point-by-Point Method.

 

The Structure of a Paragraph

 

Structure 1: One-Side-at-a-Time Method

 

Topic Sentence

                                   

 Feature 1 of Subject A

 Feature 2 of Subject A

 Feature 1 of Subject B

 Feature 2 of subject B

                                    

Concluding Sentence

 

Structure 2: Point-by-Point Method

 

Topic Sentence

                                   

 Feature 1 of Subject A

 Feature 1 of Subject B

 Feature 2 of Subject A

 Feature 2 of subject B

                                    

Concluding Sentence

 

 

Useful sentence patterns for comparison:

Both A and B are…

A and B seem to have much / some features in common.

A is similar to B in…

There are a lot of similarities between A and B.

A shares some common features with B.

 

Useful sentence patterns for contrast:

A is different from B in…

A differs from B in…

There are many differences between A and B.

A has nothing (little) in common with B.

The difference between A and B lies in…

Compared with A, B…

 

Words to be used for comparison:

both, compare with, similarly, likewise, also, in comparison, just like / as, both…and…, similar to

 

Words to be used for contrast

unlike, on the contrary, in contrast, on the other hand, while, whereas, however, although:

Practice:

Choose two of your teachers to write a paragraph of comparison based on the topic and outline given below, write one short paragraph of comparison and contrast.

       Main idea: Professor Elmer has little in common with Professor Michael.

       Parts being compared: subjects they teach, age, and character

       Comparison result: despite their differences, they are dutiful teachers

Reference model:

       Professor Elmer doesn’t share much with Professor Michael. Professor Elmer, who is middle-aged, teaches English. Lively and friendly, he is easy to get along with. He is often mixed with the students. Although he doesn’t work as hard as Professor Michael, students regard him dutiful teacher. On the contrary, though our Economics teacher Professor Michael is of the same age as Professor Elmer, he is more serious-looking. I never see him smile. There is always a sore looking on his face when a student is late or when a student makes a mistake. Despite all these, students hold him high because he works hard and always gives excellent lectures.

      

Professor Elmer has little in common with Professor Michael. Professor Elmer, who teaches English, is about the same age as Professor Michael, the teacher of Economics. Professor Elmer’s personality is quite different from Professor Michael’s. Professor Michael is much more serious-looking than Professor Elmer. I never see him smile. There is always a sore looking on his face when a student is late or when a student makes a mistake. Professor Elmer is more lively and friendly. He mixes more with the students than Professor Michael. But he doesn’t work as hard as Professor Michael. Professor Michael works like a beaver(海狸). Although they share little common features with each other, they are dutiful teachers.

3. Post-reading

3. 1 Useful expressions

1. 人如其名                              As his name is, so is he.   (title)

2. 想要,喜欢                            to feel like  (L. 3)

3. 用A代替B                            to substitute A for B  (L. 5)

4. ……感到舒服                        to feel comfortable with… (L. 6)

 

5. 认真/严肃地对待某事 / 某人            to take sth./sb. seriously  (L. 7)

6. 增加对……的信心                      to add self-confidence to…  (L. 11)

7. 从古至今                              throughout history (L. 12)

8. 是对……的真实写照                    to be descriptive of… (L. 16)

9. 无论结果好坏                          for better or worse (L. 20)

10. 传递,表达                           to convey to (L. 23)

11. 使…………相关联                   to attach ... to…    (L. 24)

 

12. 有助于(鼓励)结识新朋友             to encourage new acquaintances (L. 31)

13. 紧急请求,要求                       to press for   (L. 35)

14. 不自在,困窘                         to be ill at ease (L. 37)

15. 免受……影响的                       free from… (L. 38)

16. ……有罪责                         to be guilty of… (L. 39)

17. ……加在某人身上                   to project  ... on sb.  (L. 40)

 

18. ……负责                           to take charge of… (L. 42)

19. 促使某人干某事                       to push sb. to do sth. (L. 44)

20. 坚持……/无法摆脱……                to stick with… / to be stuck with… (L. 58)

3. 2 Summary of the text

Summarize the text with the following phrases:

1. make a difference

    2. lead to success

    3. suggest qualities

    4. specific images

    5. a positive sense

    6. name stereotyping

    7. prejudices against

    8. affect one’s evaluation

 

The author describes ways names can make a difference. After changing her name Debbie into Lynne, a woman is now very successful in her career. Although changing one’s name does not necessarily lead to success, names are indeed very important in people’s life, because they can suggest qualities. And names are attached to specific images. A name with positive sense is good for a person and can encourage one to have new friends.

But sometimes people make the mistake of name stereotyping and have prejudices against or in favor of certain names. Such prejudices may affect instructors’ or examiners’ evaluation of students’ classroom achievement, objectively graded IQ, achievement tests and also student’s popularity with their peers. So the writer suggests if your name doesn’t suit you, you can change your name.

3. 3 Assignment

1. Finish all the exercises related to Section A of Unit 6.

2. Preview Section B, including reading skills, the passage and the related exercises.

3. Written work: Write a paragraph of comparison and contrast.

4. Oral Exercise: A. Paragraph recitation.

              B. Work in pairs, and make up a conversation about names and effects.

 

Section B Judging by Appearances

 

1. Reading Skill

Reading for the Main Ideas in Paragraphs

As was introduced in Unit 1, finding the main idea of a paragraph is necessary for understanding a piece of writing. The main idea sentence of a paragraph is commonly known as a “topic sentence” or “topic statement”. The topic sentence most frequently appears at the beginning of a paragraph, as we can see in the following example taken from Reading Passage A:

 

1) Of course, names with a positive sense can work for you, even encourage new acquaintances. A recent survey showed that American men thought Susan to be the most attractive female name, while women believed Richard and David were the most attractive for men. One woman I know turned down a blind date with a man named Harry because “he sounded dull” . Several evenings later, she came up to me at a party, pressing for an introduction to a very impressive man; they’d been exchanging glances all evening. “Oh,” I said. “You mean Harry.” She was ill at ease. (Para. 5, Reading Passage A, Unit 6)

 

Main idea: Names with a positive sense can work for you.

 

But the topic sentence may also appear in other places: in the middle or at the end of a paragraph. Look at two more examples taken from Reading Passage A:

 

Naturally, the name change didn’t cause Debbie/Lynne’s professional achievement—but it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. Social scientists say that what you’re called can affect your life. Throughout history, names have not merely identified people but also described them. “…As his name is, so is he…” says the Bible, and Webster’s Dictionary includes the following definition of name: “a word or words expressing some quality considered characteristic or descriptive of a person or a thing, often expressing approval or disapproval.” Note well “approval or disapproval.” For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or reserve, plainness or charm may be suggested by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you. (Para. 3, Reading Passage A, Unit 6)

 

The main idea sentence appears in the middle of this paragraph.

 

Though your parents probably meant your name to last a lifetime, remember that when they picked it they’d hardly met you, and the hopes and dreams they valued when they chose it may not match yours. If your name no longer seems to fit you, don’t despair; you aren’t stuck with the label. Movie stars regularly change their names, and with some determination, you can, too. (Para. 8, Reading Passage A, Unit 6)

 

The main idea sentence appears at the end of this paragraph.

 

Sometimes the main idea of a paragraph is not directly stated by any one sentence in the paragraph: it is only implied. In these cases you have to write a sentence to sum up or state the main idea of a paragraph.

 

Practice:

For each of the following paragraphs, write down the main idea in your own words in the blank space.

 

1) The aim was to look like street people and to observe what difference that made in the way other people responded to us—whether the appearance of poverty would invite prejudice on us. We were also prepared to act out some mildly unusual behaviors that might speak of some emotional problems, without appearing seriously disturbed or dangerous. As it turned out, there was no need for dramatics; people turned us off or tuned us out on the basis of appearance alone. (Para. 3)   

 

Main idea: Our aim was to observe how people responded to the way we looked.

 

2) It was prejudice time. Some of the children we encountered stared, pointed, and laughed; adults gave us long, doubting looks. Clerks in stores followed our track to watch our every move. In a lunchroom a second assistant hurried to the side of the cashier, where they took my $2 check without asking for ID; it seemed worth that price to have us out the door. At one doorway a clerk physically blocked the entrance apparently to discourage our entry. (Para. 5)

 

Main idea: It was prejudice time.

 

3) So what did we learn? Mostly what we expected, what everybody knows: people judge by appearances. Just looking poor brings with it prejudice, accompanied by removal of much of the social grace most of us take for granted. Lacking the culturally acceptable symbols of belonging in this setting, we became, to a degree, objects, with less inherent dignity as persons. (Para. 7)

 

Main idea: People judge by appearances.

 

2. Text Reading

1) go to great lengths to do  (L. 1)

A standard criticism of sociological research is that it goes to great lengths to prove what most people with common sense already know. (L. 1-2)

人们通常会批评社会学研究不遗余力地去证明那些大多数有常识的人已经知道了的东西。

They went to great lengths to cover up the defects of the products.

他们竭尽全力遮掩产品的瑕疵。 (make a great deal of effort to do)

The famous actor __________________ (竭尽所能躲避) news writers and photographers.

went to great lengths to hide from

Brought up in the countryside, he will go to great length ________________(获得他所要的东西).

to get what he wants

2) validate (L. 3)

Without exactly taking sides for or against that criticism, I want to describe a sociological exercise that might seem to validate it ---except that, for me and a classmate ( and maybe for some who read this account ), the experience made a common claim come alive. (L. 2-5)

我不想完全支持或反对此类批评,我只想描述一次似乎可以证实它的社会学考察活动。只是,对于我和我的一位同学(也许还有那些看到这篇报道的人)而言,这次活动使一个人人皆知的观点变得真真切切了。

Can you validate your views against economic growth?

你能证明自己反对经济增长的观点站得住脚吗? (vt. make sth. well based)

This discovery seems to validate the claim that this South American civilization has certain relations with ancient Chinese culture.

这一发现似乎证明了美国南部文明与古代中国文化有着某种关系。

___________(他提不出缺席的正当理由), which makes his supervisor very angry.

He gave no valid reason for his absence.  (a.)

3) be inappropriate for (L. 8)

We wore clothing slightly inappropriate for the weather, clean but not ironed, clearly not the styles worn by most visitors to the area.  (L. 8-9)

我们穿上了天气稍稍不配的衣服,很干净但没有烫过。很明显,大多数到这个地区来的游客多不会穿这种式样的衣服。

Joking with everyone at this official celebration is inappropriate for such a serious occasion.

在这样正规的庆典上与众人开玩笑与如此庄重的场合不相符。(……不合适)

这些节目12 岁以下儿童不宜。

These TV programs are inappropriate for children under 12.

4) conceal  (L. 11)

I wore a wool hat that concealed my hair and an unfashionable coat and glasses with sun shades

that clipped on. L. 11-12

我戴着一顶羊毛帽子把头发掩盖住,穿着一件老式的外套,并戴着一副夹着遮阳墨镜片的眼镜。

The doctor decided that he could not ____________(对老人隐瞒真相).

conceal the truth from the old man any longer

She knew at once that he was ___________(有什么事瞒着她).

concealing something from her

5) turn out  (L. 17)

As it turned out, there was no need for dramatics; people turned us off or turned us out on the

basis of appearance alone. (L. 17-18)

结果证明:无须夸张做作,人们单凭我们的外貌就我们离开不理睬我们。

A loss may turn out to be a gain./

Misfortune turns out to be a blessing in disguise.

塞翁失马,焉知祸福?

He talks as if he has been in Britain for many years. However, _____________(原来他根本没去过那儿).

it turned out that he was never there    (come to be known)

 

词语辨析

turn sb. off        撵走,赶走

turn sb. out       不理会,不理睬

turn to sb.         转向

I had just noticed the place and had turned to my companion. (L. 45 Unit 6-B, Book II)

那时我刚注意到这个地方并转向我的同伴。

6) be up to sth. (L. 22)

We weren’t up to trying our act at an exclusive restaurant, so we wandered around the first floor and left. (L. 22-23)

我们的演技还达不到上高档餐厅一试身手的水平,所以我们在底楼兜了一圈就走了。

My French isn’t up to translating that letter. You have to find someone else to do it for you.

我的法文不够好,翻译不了那封信,你另找他人为你翻译吧。(be capable of)

迈克尔确实不胜任那项工作。

Michael's not really up to that job.

   7) exclusive  (L. 23)

We weren’t up to trying our act at an exclusive restaurant, so we wandered around the first floor and left. (L. 22-23)

我们的演技还达不到上高档餐厅一试身手的水平,所以我们在底楼兜了一圈就走了。

Without much money in her purse, Mary was not confident enough to enter those exclusive shops while wandering along Huaihai Road.

由于钱包里没多少钱,玛利在淮海路闲逛的时候不敢走进那些高档商店。(a. 高级的,昂贵的)

The holiday travel cost us a lot of money as we stayed in one of _____________(最昂贵高档的度假疗养院) in Europe.

the most expensive and exclusive holiday homes

8) discourage  (L. 30)

At one doorway a clerk physically blocked the entrance apparently to discourage our entry. (L. 30) 在一个入口处,一名营业员用身体挡住了大门,显然是想打消我们进去的念头

If you fail your driving test the first time, _________________(别灰心). You can try again.

don't let it discourage you   (v. try to stop 劝阻)

The government should issue a new law __________________(消除种族歧视).

to discourage racial prejudice

9) apart from (L. 32)

We had money to cover small purchases, and, apart from wearing down-scale clothing, we did nothing in any of these settings to draw attention to ourselves; we merely shopped quietly in our accustomed manner. (L 32-34) 我们身上带有支付小金额货物的钱,而且了穿低档衣服,我们没有在上述任何环境里做过任何吸引他人来注意我们的事;我们仅仅是以我们习惯的方式在静静地购物。

Apart from (= Besides/ In addition to) the international flight, the children have to pay for their own expenses such as food, shelter, entertainment, long distance telephone calls and clothing.

除了国际机票,孩子们还的支付诸如食物、住房、娱乐、长途话费和衣服等花费。(except for )

Good work, apart from (=except for ) a few slight faults.

除去一两处小错,作业完成得很好。

I decided not to go traveling with my roommates this summer vacation. __________(除了费用太大之外), it will take a lot of time.

Apart from the cost

10) accompany  (L. 39)

Just looking poor brings with it prejudice, accompanied by removal of much of the social grace most of us take for granted. (L 39-40) 仅仅是外表贫穷就会带来人们的歧视,(同时)在很多场合我们大多数人视为理所当然的社交礼仪也不复存在了。

 

It had strong winds accompanied by heavy rain.

当时,刮着强风,下着大雨。(vt. happen with sth)

Since you don't know much about this city, let me__________(我送你去宾馆) in case you lose your way again. accompany you to your hotel (vt. walk with sb. as an companion or helper )

It is a common sense that fever is almost always _____________(伴随咳嗽).

accompanied by cough

11) prevail  (L. 50)

In a very few hours, we found ourselves accepting and internalizing the superficial and prejudiced judgments of ourselves that prevailed among the people we met; we catalogued ourselves.L. 48-51

没过几小时,我们发觉自己正在接受并适应着那种在我们所遇到的人中间流行的、对我们持有的肤浅看法和偏见。

Justice has prevailed and the guilty man has been punished by law.

正义占了上风,罪犯受到了法律的制裁。(vi. fight successfully against)

 

这一习俗在老一辈中还很盛行。

This custom still prevails among the members of the older generation. (vi. exist or happen generally)

I am sure that __________(理性将占上风) in the end. Never give up too early.

common sense will prevail

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