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2010-03-14 21:52:30|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                 Unit One  Section A 

      Time-Conscious Americans 


1. Pre-reading  

1. 1 Background information


Time Orientation

Americans place considerable value on punctuality. Because they tend to organize their activities by means of schedules, they may seem harried, always running from one thing to the next and unable to relax and enjoy themselves. Since Americans are so time conscious, the pace of life may seem very hectic(紧张的). Being on time is regarded as very important, and in the U.S. most people make an effort to arrive on time. Not all Americans are punctual, but almost everyone is conscious of time. Different types of activities have different conventions. One should arrive at the exact time specified for meals, and for appointments with professors, doctors, and other professionals. You can arrive any time between the hours specified for parties, receptions, and cocktail parties. Plan to arrive a few minutes before the specified time for public meetings, plays, concerts, movies, sports events, classes, church services, and weddings. If you are unable to keep an appointment, it is expected that you inform the other party that you will be late or unable to arrive.   

Hourglass: A glass container holding fine sand for measuring time, which is narrow in the middle like a figure 8 so that the sand inside can run slowly from the top half to the bottom taking exactly one hour.



Proverbs of time

Read the following proverbs. Have you ever learnt them?

What are the Chinese versions for them?

1. Time works wonders.


2. Time tries truth.


3. Time is the best healer.


4. Time and tide wait for no man.


5. All time is no time when it is past.


6.An inch of time can not be bought by an inch of gold.


2. While-reading

2. 1 Global reading

2. 1. 1 Understanding the major details of the text

1. What precious resource do Americans value and save?

   Time & labor.

2. What is a foreigner’s first impression of the US likely to be? And how do city people appear in the writer’s eyes?

    Everyone is in a rush---often under pressure. In the writer’s eyes, city people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping.

3. What examples does the writer give to show that Americans work hard at the task of saving time?

    Americans produce a steady flow of labor-saving device: they communicate rapidly through faxes, phone calls or emails rather than through personal contacts.


2. 1. 2 Understanding the organization of the text

Main idea of the text

Americans value time and save time carefully. In their eyes, time is regarded as precious resource. A person who tends to waste his own time or that of others is never accepted in American culture. Consequently, Americans try every means to save time in their daily life, business and work so as to make every minute count. Besides, to solve a problem or fulfill a job with speed in U.S.A is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent.

Division of the text

Part One—(Paras. 1—2)

Americans value time and save time carefully. Time is regarded as precious resources.

Part Two—(Paras.37) 

Americans try every means to save time. They save time in their daily life , business and work as well. They also create a series of devices to improve efficiency.

Part Three–(paras. 8)

Saving time is regarded as a sign of skillfulness or being competent.

2. 2 Detailed reading

2. 2. 1  Words and Phrases

1) result (L.2)

Acting before thinking always results in failing. cause, lead to


The accident resulted from his careless driving. (be caused by)


The accident________ the death of two people

事故导致两人死亡。        (resulted in)

The child’s illness ________eating unclean food.

   孩子的生病是因吃了不干净的事物引起的。  ( result from )

A love marriage, however, does not necessarily _____ much sharing of interests and responsibilities. (CET-4  96.1)

   a. take over    b. result in    c. hold on    d. keep to         

   Key: b    然而有爱情的婚姻未必会使夫妇利益共享,责任共担。

2) nothing but… (L.5)

Don’t have him for a friend: he is nothing but a criminal. ( 只有,只不过)



There is nothing in the room but a table.  (除了……以外没有什么)

注意:nothing but 前或之间出现实意动词 do 一词时,but 后要跟上不带 to 的不定式;但是,nothing but 前且之间没有出现实意动词do一词时,but 后要跟上带to 的不定式。

如:They could do nothing but go home on foot.


They could say nothing but to keep silent.


3charge (L.7)

   How much do you charge for a washing car? v. ask an amount as a price收费)



   We charge 200 dollars for a single room one night.


As long as you have paid advance, we won’t charge you for the delivery.

4) count  (L.11)

She’s the only person that really counts around here. v. be important



For them, what counts is nothing but money.


What matters is this: whoever she was, Aunt Esther Gubbins was right.Unit 6—A, Book I

5) beyond (L.20)

Understanding this article is beyond my capacity. (prep. 超出,出乎,为……所不能及)


   Do you know the English expression of the following:

出乎某人的预料  beyond one’s expectation

非我力所能及:  beyond my ability

    做梦都想不到:  beyond one’s dream

    够不着         beyond one’s reach

不能再修复      beyond repair

6) assess (L.27)

 The annual income of school teachers in this place was assessed at900. v. to estimate the value of sth..评价,估价)



It is too early to assess the effects of the new law.


assess  v. 常用表示对收入,财产等进行“估价”(常作为课税或罚款等的根据);

estimate  v. 指一种猜测性的“估价、估计”,强调其估计结果可能是错误的;

evaluate  v.  强调评定人或物的价值


All the experts presented found it very difficult to assess the value of the antique.


It was difficult to estimate how many people had been wounded in the earthquake. (Unit4-A, Book I).

Every term students are given the opportunity to evaluate their instructors. (Unit 8-B, Book 1)

7) generally (L.29)

  Generally, the student go to the library three times a week.  (ad. usually)



   ________________that smoking is bad for health. (ad. by most people, widely)

It is generally agreedbelieved

8) consequently (L.32)

The bank refused to help the company; consequently it went out of business. ad. as a result)银行拒绝帮助这家公司,公司因此倒闭了。


The documents are not ready. Consequently we cannot sign them.

9) givenL.35


Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. ( prep. considering )

______________, they’ve done a good job. Given that they are inexperienced


Given good weather, our ship will reach Shanghai Monday evening. ( If provided…)

Notice that “given” is followed by a noun phrase, while “given that” is followed by a finite clause.

10) increasingly (L.40)

The increasingly dull nature of many industrial jobs has led to the alienation of many workers.  ( ad. more and more)



People are increasingly aware of the importance of being healthy. 

11) due to (L.46)


Due to the change the weather, we gave up our plan. (because of)

  Some areas, _____their severe weather conditions, are hardly populated.

   a. due to   b. in spite of    c. but for    d. with regard to

   Key:  a    有些地区由于气候恶劣很少有人居住。

12) whereas (L.47) 

They want a house, whereas/while we would rather live in a flat. (conj. but, while)

他们想住一所房子, 可我们宁愿住在一套公寓房里。


他们国家石油丰富, 而我们国家则一点也没有。

Their country has plenty of oil, ______________.

(whereas/ while ours has none)


Some students want to make big money right after graduation from university, wheras some other students want to go to graduate schools.

13) competent (L.52)  

Although he received little education, he is competent for the work.. ( a. 有能力的,胜任的)



competent,只用作褒义,主语通常是人,表示“胜任的,有能力的”,常用于“be competent for

able只用作褒义,主语通常也必须是有生命的人或动物,表示“有才能的, 能够的”,常用于“be able to

capable 则可以表示褒义与贬义,不仅可用于有生命的人或动物,还可以用于无生命的事物,表示“(褒义)有能力的;(贬义)能干得出的,敢于的”,常用于“be capable of

He was one of those who are ______of playing all kinds of tricks. capable

Although he received little education, he is______ to do the work..  able 

  When Chinese football team has won several games, people began to think that this Yugoslavian coach is _________.   competent    

14) fulfill (L.53)

He has fulfilled the orders that I gave him. (v. carry out, complete)



   They fulfilled their work ahead of time as we did ours.

2. 2. 2 Sentence patterns

1) 原句: Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor. (L3-4) 时间是美国人注意节约的两个要素之一,另一个则是劳力。

  句型提炼: 名词/名词短语+V-ing /V-ed……, 主句...… (分词独立主格结构做状语                     

(1) 表示时间

   The bell ringing, all the pupils went into the classroom.

(2) 表示原因

   The question being rather difficult, we must take time to consider it carefully.

(3) 表示条件

   Weather permitting, we shall start tomorrow.

(4) 表示伴随状况

   Almost all metals are good conductors, silver being the best of all.


    _________________, he had three months’ leave.

    (The duty completed)


    The teacher ____________, the students resumed their discussion.

     a. being left    b. having left   c. left    d.  had left

      Key:  b

2) 原句:Time is treated as if it were something almost real. L.5


原句:it seems in their eyes as if the task being considered were insignificant, not worthy of proper respect. (L. 49)


句型提炼: …as if / as though + subj.+v-ed(had+v-ed)+obj.  (as if 引导的方式状语从句,一般用虚拟语气)



He operated the machine as if he had been a skilled worker.


I remember the whole thing as if it were yesterday.

3) 原句: Normally, Americans do not assess their visitors in such relaxed surroundings over extended small talk; much less do they take them out for dinner…  (L27-28)


句型提炼:  否定主句,much less… 更别提……

应用:People in the desert are always short of water to drink,______________.

(much less to bathe in)


Indeed, almost every scientist now finds it impossible to read all the works connected with his own subject, ______________________(更不用说大量阅读自己学科以外的东西了)much less to read a lot outside of it.

4)原句:To us the impersonality of electronic communication has little or no relation to the significance of the matter at hand. In some countries no major business is conducted without eye contact, requiring face-to-face conversation. (L. 37)

就我们而言,电子交流的缺乏人情味与我们手头上事情的重要性之间很少有或完全没有关系在有些国家里没有当面接触就做不成大生意, 需要面对面的交谈。


To sb., sth. has little / no relation to sth. else; whereas / while, to sb. else, nothing can be done without sth. else. 就某人而言,某事与另一事很少/完全没有关系; 然而对于另一人,没有另一事什么事都做不成。


对于美国人而言,缺乏面对面的接触和生意的成败无关; 但对中国人而言,没有经常性的边吃边面谈什么生意都做不成。

To the American people, lack of personal contact has no relation to the success or failure in their business; whereas, to the Chinese people, no business can be conducted without frequent face-to-face chats over meals.


   To people in the past, electricity has little relation to their living; whereas, to people in the modern society, nothing can be done without electricity.

2. 3 Guided writing

A paragraph of a general Statement Supported by Specific Details and Reasons

Paragraph structure: “General statement---Details (How?)---Detail (Why?)”

Let’s take paragraph 3 of passage A as an example:

General Statement: Everyone is in a rush—often under pressure


How is that everyone is in a rush--- often under pressure?

1. City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping. Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country.


2.Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating-places are waiting fro you to finish so they, too, can be served and get back to work within the time allowed.

3. You also find drivers will be abrupt and people will push past you. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers.


Now write a short paragraph on “The importance of Rain”, which starts with a general statement (综述) that is supported by specific details and the reason. Your paragraph should be in no less than 80 words .


Reference model:

     We must not forget about the ways rain benefits us. At first, the rain fills up our lakes, rivers, and streams, in which fishes are living. The rain also supplies the water we draw from our faucets and fountains, which provide our drinking water. Rain is especially important to plants. They will wither and die if they cannot take in the nourishment of water and the minerals in the soil. This is because all living things cannot live without water.

 3. Post-reading

3. 1 Useful expressions

1) 投身于(研究、实验和探索)

commit to researching, experimenting and exploring(L.2)

2) 只受时间的支配

be slaves to nothing but the clock     (L.5)

3) 解释······的原因

account for (L.6)

4) 深感(人生的短暂)to have a rather acute sense of (the shortness of each lifetime) (L.7)

5) 在压力下be under pressure (L.11)

6) 在规定的时间内(赶回去工作)(get back to work) within the time allowed (L.15)

7) 针对某个人take it personally     (L.18)

8) 不得当地(浪费时间)

waste the time beyond a certain appropriate point  (L.20)

9) 喝着茶或咖啡招待客人的礼节性交往

the ritual interaction that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee (L.23)

10) 增进相互间信任

to develop a sense of trust  (L.29)

11) 源源不断地生产出节省劳力的器具

   produce a steady flow of labor saving devices (L32)

12) 与手头的事情(很少有或)完全没有关系

to have (little or) no relation to the matter at hand (L.37)

13) 被看作是一个人能力强的表现be taken as a sign of skillfulness  (L.52)

3. 2 Summary of the text

Summarize the passage using the tips below.

      1)  concerned about time

     2)  consider time a precious resource.

     3)  always in a rush

     4)  exchange smiles or brief conversations

     5)  use quite a few labor-saving devices 

     6)  more and more popular

     7)  is saved for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings

     8)  fulfilling a job successfully is a sign of

 Suggested answer:

Americans are particularly concerned about time. They clearly realize that life is short and consider time a precious resource. Visitors may find that Americans are always in a rush and under great pressure in daily life. They don’t usually exchange smiles or brief conversations because they resent wasting time. Americans generally assess and inquire about others professionally rather than socially, so they start talking business directly without opening exchanges.

    In order to save time, Americans use quite a few labor-saving devices like telephones, faxes, or emails. Electronic communication is becoming more and more popular, while most personal visiting, which though pleasant, takes longer, is saved for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings. In the US, unlike in some other countries, quickly solving a problem or fulfilling a job successfully is a sign of skillfulness or being competent.


Section A
















有些初来美国的人来自文化背景不同的其他国家,在他们的国家,人们认为工作太快是一种失礼。在他们看来,如果不花一定时间来处理某件事的话,那么这件事就好像是无足轻重的,不值得给予适当的重视。 因此,人们觉得用的时间长会增加所做事情的重要性。但在美国,能迅速而又成功地解决问题或完成工作则被视为是有水平、有能力的标志。通常情况下,工作越重要,投入的资金、精力和注意力就越多,其目的是“使工作开展起来”。




             Unit One  Section B

    Culture Shock

1 Reading Skill

Reading for the Main Ideas in Paragraphs


The particular reading skill introduced for this unit is reading for the main idea in a paragraph. This skill is one of the most useful reading skills students can develop. Finding the main idea is necessary for the understanding of a piece of writing.

1) The main idea of a paragraph is usually stated by one of the sentences in the paragraph. The main idea sentence is commonly known as “a topic sentence” or “a topic statement”. It may appear in one of several places in the paragraph. Most frequently the first sentence of a paragraph states the main idea, as is clear from the following example taken from Reading Passage A:

Consequently, we work hard at the task of saving time. We produce a steady flow of labor-saving devices; we communicate rapidly through faxes, phone calls or emails rather than through personal contacts, which though pleasant, take longer—especially given our traffic-filled streets. We, therefore, save most personal visiting for after work hours or for social weekend gatherings. (Para.5, Reading Passage A, Unit 1)

Main idea: We work hard at the task of saving time.

In this paragraph the main idea appears in the beginning of the paragraph.


    2) However, the main idea sentence may also appear in other places: in the middle or at the end of a paragraph. Look at two more examples taken from Reading Passage A:

(1) “We are slaves to nothing but the clock,” it has been said. Time is treated as if it were something almost real. We budget it, save it, waste it, steal it, kill it, cut it, account for it; we also charge for it. It is a precious resource. Many people have a rather acute sense of the shortness of each lifetime. Once the sands have run out of a person’s hourglass, they cannot be replaced. We want every minute to count. (Para. 2, Reading Passage A, Unit 1)         


Main Idea: It (= Time) is a precious resource.

    In this paragraph the main idea appears in the middle of the paragraph.


(2) Americans believe no one stands still. If you are not moving ahead, you are falling behind. This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring. Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor. (Para. 1, Reading Passage A, Unit 1)   

Main Idea: Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor.

In this paragraph the main idea appears at the end of this paragraph.


Please notice that sometimes there is no sentence in the paragraph which directly states the main idea. That doesn’t mean that there isn’t a main idea in the paragraph, only the main idea is implied. In these cases you have to write a sentence to sum up the main idea of the paragraph.

It was late afternoon when the chairman of our Bangkok-based company gave me an assignment: I would leave the next day to accompany an important Chinese businessman to tourist sites in northern Thailand. Silently angry, I stared at my desk. the stacks of paper bore witness to a huge amount of work waiting to be done, even though I had been working seven days a week. How will I ever catch up? I wondered.

Main Idea: I got an assignment and felt angry because a huge amount of work still has to be done.


For your practice:

XIV. For each of the following paragraphs, write down the main idea in your own words in the blank space. (Page16, Section B, Book 1)

1.     Do you think studying in a different country is something that sounds very exciting? Like many young people who leave home to study in another country, do you think you would have lots of desirable fun? Certainly, it is a new experience, which brings the opportunity of discovering fascinating things and a feeling of freedom. In spite of these advantages, however, there are also some challenges you will encounter. Because your views may clash with the different beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that exist in different countries, you may have difficulty adjusting to a new culture and to those parts of the culture not familiar to you. This is culture shock. Evidently, at least four essential stages of culture-shock adjustment occur. (Para.1)     


Main idea: Studying in a different country is a new experience, but there are also some challenges. 


2. The first stage is called “the honeymoon”. In this stage, you feel excitement about living in a different place, and everything seems to be marvelous. You like everything, and everybody seems to be so nice to you. Also, the amusement of life in a new culture seems as though it will have no ending. (Para. 2)

Main idea : The first stage of culture-shock adjustment is “the honeymoon”.


3. Eventually, however, the second stage of culture shock appears. This is the “hostility stage”. You begin to notice that not everything is as good as you had originally thought it was. You become tired of many things about the new culture. Moreover, people don’t treat you like a guest anymore. Everything that seemed to be so wonderful at first is now awful, and everything makes you feel distressed and tired. (Para. 3)     


Main idea: The second stage of culture shock, “the hostility stage”, eventually occurs.


4. Usually at this point in your adjustment to a new culture, you devise some defense mechanisms to help you cope and to protect yourself against the effects of culture shock. One type of coping mechanism is called “repression”. This happens when you pretend that everything is acceptable and that nothing bothers you. Another type of defense mechanism is called “regression”. This occurs when you start to act as if you are younger than you actually are; you act like a child. You forget everything, and sometimes you become careless and irresponsible. The third kind of defense mechanism is called “isolation”. You would rather be home alone, and you don’t want to communicate with anybody. With isolation, you try to avoid the effects of culture shock, or at least that’s what you think. Isolation is one of the worst coping mechanisms you can use because it separates you from those things that could really help you. The last type of defense mechanism is called “rejection”. With this coping mechanism, you think you don’t need anybody. You feel you are coping fine alone, so you don’t try to ask for help. (Para. 4)


Main idea : At this point, some defense mechanisms are devised to protect yourself against the effects of culture shock.    


5. After you deal with your hostile feelings, recognition of the temporary nature of culture shock begins. Then you come to the third stage called “recovery”. In this stage, you start feeling more positive, and you try to develop comprehension of everything you don’t understand. The whole situation starts to become more favorable; you recover from the symptoms of the first two stages, and you adjust yourself to the new norms, values, and even beliefs and traditions of the new country. You begin to see that even though the distinctions of the culture are different from your own, it has elements that you can learn to appreciate. (Para. 6, Reading Passage B, Unit 1)    


Main idea : The third stage of culture shock adjustment, “recovery”, starts.

2. Text Reading

1) desirable (L.3)

For this job it is desirable to know something about medicine. (a. 令人向往的,合意的,值得有的)


Notice: In the structure “It is desirable that ...”, the verb in the that-clause is usually in the subjunctive form or “should” is used before the main verb.


It is most desirable that he__________________. (should) attend the convention


  It is desirable that she leave the company immediately.

2) In spite of (L.4)

  In spite of great efforts we failed to carry our plans through. regardless of


  He always did well at school _______ having to do part-time jobs every now and then.

  a. in case of    b. in spite of   c. regardless of     d. on account of

  Key:  b.    虽然他有时得干点兼职,但他的学习却一直很好。

温故知新:despite  prep.

He went to work sick, and despite nasty weather. (Unit 3-A, Book I)


3) have difficulty in doing (L.7) 

他的英语很糟糕, 我很难听懂他。

His English is very bad and I have great difficultytrouble (in) understanding him.

   Notice: If “have difficulty” is followed directly by a noun phrase, the preposition “with” is used and the preposition can never be omitted in this case.


The child seems to_____________________ . have a lot of difficulty with English grammar

4) familiar (L.8)

词语辨析:be familiar with  & be familiar to

familiar to: If sth. is familiar to you, it is well known to you or you often experience/encounter it.

familiar with: If you are familiar with sth., you have a good knowledge of it or you know it in detail.


He talked of other cultures as if they were more familiar to him than his own.

    He talked of the other cultures as if he were more familiar with them than his own.

Larkin not only speaks Chinese well, but also is familiar _____ early Chinese history.

         a. to      b. with  

Key: b 

5) evidently (L.8)

  Evidently he was sensitive to the topic of operation. (ad. obviouslyclearly)



  The stranger approached the microphone,____________.

evidently intending to speak

6) moreover (L.16)

furthermore (L53)


    Bicycling is a good exercise, moreover/ furthermore it doesn’t pollute air. ( ad. in addition)


You cannot go out because it is a stormy night, moreover, your homework hasn’t been done.

7) distressed (L.18)

The mother was distressed by her baby's illness.  (v. 痛苦,苦恼)


  The mother was in great distress when her baby became ill.  (n. 痛苦,苦恼)




suffering指“身体或精神上的痛苦”, 着重“对痛苦的感觉和忍受”, 一般用于人;

His wild behavior was a great distress to his family.


His wound caused him great suffering.


8) 原句:You would rather be home alone, and you don’t want to communicate with anybody. (L.25-26) 你宁可一个人呆在家里,也不愿和任何人交流。

   句型: would rather…  宁愿….

   用法:1)后接无to 动词原形作谓语;

           Which would you rather have, tea or coffee?


         2) 其否定式在动词原形前加not 构成;

           I’d very much rather not leave you here.



           I would rather you did nothing about it now.


 9)  favorable (L.39)

   The bank will lend you money on very favorable terms.   a. 有帮助的,适宜的)



I have been hearing favorable accounts of your work.   (a. 赞同的)

10) appreciate (L.43)


We all appreciate the holiday after a year of hard work.  v. 欣赏)

Notice: If it is followed by a verb, the verb should be used in the form of gerund.

   appreciate (one’s) doing sth


 We shall appreciate hearing from you again.

11) acquisition (L.47)

language acquisition   (n. 获得,得到)


The children progressed quickly_______________.

(in the acquisition of basic skills)


      Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  (AIDS)  (Unit 5-A, Book 1)

      获得性免疫缺损综合症  (艾滋病)


She acquired a knowledge of the English by careful study.

 12alleviate  (L.47)          

The fund is to alleviate the distress among the flood victims. (v. relieve 减轻,缓解)



This pill can alleviate the pain on your back.


 Section B
















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