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新视野大学英语读写教程第二册第一单元课文学习辅导  

2010-03-14 21:52:30|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                 Unit One  Section A 

      Time-Conscious Americans 

 

1. Pre-reading  

1. 1 Background information

 

Time Orientation

Americans place considerable value on punctuality. Because they tend to organize their activities by means of schedules, they may seem harried, always running from one thing to the next and unable to relax and enjoy themselves. Since Americans are so time conscious, the pace of life may seem very hectic(紧张的). Being on time is regarded as very important, and in the U.S. most people make an effort to arrive on time. Not all Americans are punctual, but almost everyone is conscious of time. Different types of activities have different conventions. One should arrive at the exact time specified for meals, and for appointments with professors, doctors, and other professionals. You can arrive any time between the hours specified for parties, receptions, and cocktail parties. Plan to arrive a few minutes before the specified time for public meetings, plays, concerts, movies, sports events, classes, church services, and weddings. If you are unable to keep an appointment, it is expected that you inform the other party that you will be late or unable to arrive.   

Hourglass: A glass container holding fine sand for measuring time, which is narrow in the middle like a figure 8 so that the sand inside can run slowly from the top half to the bottom taking exactly one hour.

沙漏:一种装上细沙以用来测量时间的玻璃容器,其颈部细小,形状象一个8字,使得上半部的沙子能缓慢地流到下半部中,其时间正好是一个小时。

 

Proverbs of time

Read the following proverbs. Have you ever learnt them?

What are the Chinese versions for them?

1. Time works wonders.

时间创造奇迹。

2. Time tries truth.

时间检验真理。

3. Time is the best healer.

时间是治愈创伤的良药。

4. Time and tide wait for no man.

时间不等人。(时不我待。)

5. All time is no time when it is past.

机不可失,时不再来。

6.An inch of time can not be bought by an inch of gold.

  寸金难买寸光阴。 

2. While-reading

2. 1 Global reading

2. 1. 1 Understanding the major details of the text

1. What precious resource do Americans value and save?

   Time & labor.

2. What is a foreigner’s first impression of the US likely to be? And how do city people appear in the writer’s eyes?

    Everyone is in a rush---often under pressure. In the writer’s eyes, city people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping.

3. What examples does the writer give to show that Americans work hard at the task of saving time?

    Americans produce a steady flow of labor-saving device: they communicate rapidly through faxes, phone calls or emails rather than through personal contacts.

 

2. 1. 2 Understanding the organization of the text

Main idea of the text

Americans value time and save time carefully. In their eyes, time is regarded as precious resource. A person who tends to waste his own time or that of others is never accepted in American culture. Consequently, Americans try every means to save time in their daily life, business and work so as to make every minute count. Besides, to solve a problem or fulfill a job with speed in U.S.A is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent.

Division of the text

Part One—(Paras. 1—2)

Americans value time and save time carefully. Time is regarded as precious resources.

Part Two—(Paras.37) 

Americans try every means to save time. They save time in their daily life , business and work as well. They also create a series of devices to improve efficiency.

Part Three–(paras. 8)

Saving time is regarded as a sign of skillfulness or being competent.

2. 2 Detailed reading

2. 2. 1  Words and Phrases

1) result (L.2)

Acting before thinking always results in failing. cause, lead to

没有经过思考的行动总是导致失败。

The accident resulted from his careless driving. (be caused by)

?事故是由于他的粗心驾驶造成的。

The accident________ the death of two people

事故导致两人死亡。        (resulted in)

The child’s illness ________eating unclean food.

   孩子的生病是因吃了不干净的事物引起的。  ( result from )

A love marriage, however, does not necessarily _____ much sharing of interests and responsibilities. (CET-4  96.1)

   a. take over    b. result in    c. hold on    d. keep to         

   Key: b    然而有爱情的婚姻未必会使夫妇利益共享,责任共担。

2) nothing but… (L.5)

Don’t have him for a friend: he is nothing but a criminal. ( 只有,只不过)

不要跟他做朋友,他只不过是个罪犯。

屋里除了一张桌子以外什么也没有。

There is nothing in the room but a table.  (除了……以外没有什么)

注意:nothing but 前或之间出现实意动词 do 一词时,but 后要跟上不带 to 的不定式;但是,nothing but 前且之间没有出现实意动词do一词时,but 后要跟上带to 的不定式。

如:They could do nothing but go home on foot.

      他们只能步行回家。

They could say nothing but to keep silent.

 他们无话可说,只能保持沉默。

3charge (L.7)

   How much do you charge for a washing car? v. ask an amount as a price收费)

   你们洗一部车要多少钱?

   单人房每夜要收费200元。

   We charge 200 dollars for a single room one night.

只要你预先付款,我们不收你送货费。

As long as you have paid advance, we won’t charge you for the delivery.

4) count  (L.11)

She’s the only person that really counts around here. v. be important

她是这周围唯一有影响力的人。

       对他们来说,重要的只有钱。

For them, what counts is nothing but money.

温故知新:

What matters is this: whoever she was, Aunt Esther Gubbins was right.Unit 6—A, Book I

5) beyond (L.20)

Understanding this article is beyond my capacity. (prep. 超出,出乎,为……所不能及)

我看不懂这篇文章。

   Do you know the English expression of the following:

出乎某人的预料  beyond one’s expectation

非我力所能及:  beyond my ability

    做梦都想不到:  beyond one’s dream

    够不着         beyond one’s reach

不能再修复      beyond repair

6) assess (L.27)

 The annual income of school teachers in this place was assessed at900. v. to estimate the value of sth..评价,估价)

这地方的学校教师的收入为900美元。

要评价新法令的效果现在还为时过早。

It is too early to assess the effects of the new law.

词语辨析:

assess  v. 常用表示对收入,财产等进行“估价”(常作为课税或罚款等的根据);

estimate  v. 指一种猜测性的“估价、估计”,强调其估计结果可能是错误的;

evaluate  v.  强调评定人或物的价值

所有在场的专家都觉很难对这件古玩进行估价。

All the experts presented found it very difficult to assess the value of the antique.

很难估计有多少人在地震中受伤

It was difficult to estimate how many people had been wounded in the earthquake. (Unit4-A, Book I).

Every term students are given the opportunity to evaluate their instructors. (Unit 8-B, Book 1)

7) generally (L.29)

  Generally, the student go to the library three times a week.  (ad. usually)

   这学生一般每周去图书馆三次。

    人们普遍认为吸烟有害健康。

   ________________that smoking is bad for health. (ad. by most people, widely)

It is generally agreedbelieved

8) consequently (L.32)

The bank refused to help the company; consequently it went out of business. ad. as a result)银行拒绝帮助这家公司,公司因此倒闭了。

文件还没准备好,所以我们无法签署。

The documents are not ready. Consequently we cannot sign them.

9) givenL.35

考虑到他们缺乏经验,他们算做得不错了。

Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. ( prep. considering )

______________, they’ve done a good job. Given that they are inexperienced

假如天气好,我们的船将于星期一晚上到达上海。

Given good weather, our ship will reach Shanghai Monday evening. ( If provided…)

Notice that “given” is followed by a noun phrase, while “given that” is followed by a finite clause.

10) increasingly (L.40)

The increasingly dull nature of many industrial jobs has led to the alienation of many workers.  ( ad. more and more)

许多工业工作越来越单调刻板,导致很多工人离心离德的倾向。

人们越来越意识到健康的重要性。

People are increasingly aware of the importance of being healthy. 

11) due to (L.46)

  由于天气变化,我们放弃了计划。

Due to the change the weather, we gave up our plan. (because of)

  Some areas, _____their severe weather conditions, are hardly populated.

   a. due to   b. in spite of    c. but for    d. with regard to

   Key:  a    有些地区由于气候恶劣很少有人居住。

12) whereas (L.47) 

They want a house, whereas/while we would rather live in a flat. (conj. but, while)

他们想住一所房子, 可我们宁愿住在一套公寓房里。

 

他们国家石油丰富, 而我们国家则一点也没有。

Their country has plenty of oil, ______________.

(whereas/ while ours has none)

 有的大学生想毕业后立刻挣大钱,而有的学生却想读研究生。

Some students want to make big money right after graduation from university, wheras some other students want to go to graduate schools.

13) competent (L.52)  

Although he received little education, he is competent for the work.. ( a. 有能力的,胜任的)

      虽然他没受什么教育,但他仍胜任这项工作。

词语辨析:

competent,只用作褒义,主语通常是人,表示“胜任的,有能力的”,常用于“be competent for

able只用作褒义,主语通常也必须是有生命的人或动物,表示“有才能的, 能够的”,常用于“be able to

capable 则可以表示褒义与贬义,不仅可用于有生命的人或动物,还可以用于无生命的事物,表示“(褒义)有能力的;(贬义)能干得出的,敢于的”,常用于“be capable of

He was one of those who are ______of playing all kinds of tricks. capable

Although he received little education, he is______ to do the work..  able 

  When Chinese football team has won several games, people began to think that this Yugoslavian coach is _________.   competent    

14) fulfill (L.53)

He has fulfilled the orders that I gave him. (v. carry out, complete)

他完成了我给他的命令。

   同我们一样,他们也提前完成了任务。

   They fulfilled their work ahead of time as we did ours.

2. 2. 2 Sentence patterns

1) 原句: Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor. (L3-4) 时间是美国人注意节约的两个要素之一,另一个则是劳力。

  句型提炼: 名词/名词短语+V-ing /V-ed……, 主句...… (分词独立主格结构做状语                     

(1) 表示时间

   The bell ringing, all the pupils went into the classroom.

(2) 表示原因

   The question being rather difficult, we must take time to consider it carefully.

(3) 表示条件

   Weather permitting, we shall start tomorrow.

(4) 表示伴随状况

   Almost all metals are good conductors, silver being the best of all.

应用:任务完成以后,他休了3个月的假。

    _________________, he had three months’ leave.

    (The duty completed)

 老师走了以后,同学们有继续讨论。

    The teacher ____________, the students resumed their discussion.

     a. being left    b. having left   c. left    d.  had left

      Key:  b

2) 原句:Time is treated as if it were something almost real. L.5

人们似乎是把时间当作一个差不多是实实在在的东西来对付。

原句:it seems in their eyes as if the task being considered were insignificant, not worthy of proper respect. (L. 49)

     在他们看来,这件事就好象是无足轻重的,不值得给予适当的重视。

句型提炼: …as if / as though + subj.+v-ed(had+v-ed)+obj.  (as if 引导的方式状语从句,一般用虚拟语气)

   应用:

  他操作起机器来好象是个熟练的工人一样。

He operated the machine as if he had been a skilled worker.

我还记得整件事就好象是发生在昨天一样。

I remember the whole thing as if it were yesterday.

3) 原句: Normally, Americans do not assess their visitors in such relaxed surroundings over extended small talk; much less do they take them out for dinner…  (L27-28)

一般说来,美国人是不会在如此轻松的环境里通过长时间的闲聊来评估他们的客人的,更不用说他们会在增进相互信任的过程中带他们出去吃饭…..

句型提炼:  否定主句,much less… 更别提……

应用:People in the desert are always short of water to drink,______________.

(much less to bathe in)

沙漠地区的人们连喝的水也总是不够,更别提洗澡了。

Indeed, almost every scientist now finds it impossible to read all the works connected with his own subject, ______________________(更不用说大量阅读自己学科以外的东西了)much less to read a lot outside of it.

4)原句:To us the impersonality of electronic communication has little or no relation to the significance of the matter at hand. In some countries no major business is conducted without eye contact, requiring face-to-face conversation. (L. 37)

就我们而言,电子交流的缺乏人情味与我们手头上事情的重要性之间很少有或完全没有关系在有些国家里没有当面接触就做不成大生意, 需要面对面的交谈。

句型提炼

To sb., sth. has little / no relation to sth. else; whereas / while, to sb. else, nothing can be done without sth. else. 就某人而言,某事与另一事很少/完全没有关系; 然而对于另一人,没有另一事什么事都做不成。

应用:

对于美国人而言,缺乏面对面的接触和生意的成败无关; 但对中国人而言,没有经常性的边吃边面谈什么生意都做不成。

To the American people, lack of personal contact has no relation to the success or failure in their business; whereas, to the Chinese people, no business can be conducted without frequent face-to-face chats over meals.

   就过去的人来说,生活跟电没有多大的关系,然而对现在的人而言,没有电什么也做不成。

   To people in the past, electricity has little relation to their living; whereas, to people in the modern society, nothing can be done without electricity.

2. 3 Guided writing

A paragraph of a general Statement Supported by Specific Details and Reasons

Paragraph structure: “General statement---Details (How?)---Detail (Why?)”

Let’s take paragraph 3 of passage A as an example:

General Statement: Everyone is in a rush—often under pressure

 

How is that everyone is in a rush--- often under pressure?

1. City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping. Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country.

 

2.Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating-places are waiting fro you to finish so they, too, can be served and get back to work within the time allowed.

3. You also find drivers will be abrupt and people will push past you. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers.


Practice:

Now write a short paragraph on “The importance of Rain”, which starts with a general statement (综述) that is supported by specific details and the reason. Your paragraph should be in no less than 80 words .

 

Reference model:

     We must not forget about the ways rain benefits us. At first, the rain fills up our lakes, rivers, and streams, in which fishes are living. The rain also supplies the water we draw from our faucets and fountains, which provide our drinking water. Rain is especially important to plants. They will wither and die if they cannot take in the nourishment of water and the minerals in the soil. This is because all living things cannot live without water.

 3. Post-reading

3. 1 Useful expressions

1) 投身于(研究、实验和探索)

commit to researching, experimenting and exploring(L.2)

2) 只受时间的支配

be slaves to nothing but the clock     (L.5)

3) 解释······的原因

account for (L.6)

4) 深感(人生的短暂)to have a rather acute sense of (the shortness of each lifetime) (L.7)

5) 在压力下be under pressure (L.11)

6) 在规定的时间内(赶回去工作)(get back to work) within the time allowed (L.15)

7) 针对某个人take it personally     (L.18)

8) 不得当地(浪费时间)

waste the time beyond a certain appropriate point  (L.20)

9) 喝着茶或咖啡招待客人的礼节性交往

the ritual interaction that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee (L.23)

10) 增进相互间信任

to develop a sense of trust  (L.29)

11) 源源不断地生产出节省劳力的器具

   produce a steady flow of labor saving devices (L32)

12) 与手头的事情(很少有或)完全没有关系

to have (little or) no relation to the matter at hand (L.37)

13) 被看作是一个人能力强的表现be taken as a sign of skillfulness  (L.52)

3. 2 Summary of the text

Summarize the passage using the tips below.

      1)  concerned about time

     2)  consider time a precious resource.

     3)  always in a rush

     4)  exchange smiles or brief conversations

     5)  use quite a few labor-saving devices 

     6)  more and more popular

     7)  is saved for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings

     8)  fulfilling a job successfully is a sign of

 Suggested answer:

Americans are particularly concerned about time. They clearly realize that life is short and consider time a precious resource. Visitors may find that Americans are always in a rush and under great pressure in daily life. They don’t usually exchange smiles or brief conversations because they resent wasting time. Americans generally assess and inquire about others professionally rather than socially, so they start talking business directly without opening exchanges.

    In order to save time, Americans use quite a few labor-saving devices like telephones, faxes, or emails. Electronic communication is becoming more and more popular, while most personal visiting, which though pleasant, takes longer, is saved for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings. In the US, unlike in some other countries, quickly solving a problem or fulfilling a job successfully is a sign of skillfulness or being competent.

 

Section A

注重时间的美国人  

美国人认为没有人能停止不前。如果你不求进取,你就会落伍。这种态度造就了一个投身于研究、实验和探索的民族。时间是美国人注意节约的两个要素之一,另一要素是劳力。

 

人们一直说:“只有时间才能支配我们。”人们似乎把时间当作一个差不多是实实在在的东西来对待。我们安排时间、节约时间、浪费时间、挤抢时间、消磨时间、缩减时间、对时间的利用作出解释;我们还要因付出时间而收取费用。时间是一种宝贵的资源,许多人都深感人生的短暂。时光一去不复返。我们应当让每一分钟都过得有意义。

 

外国人对美国的第一印象很可能是:每个人都匆匆忙忙──常常处于压力之下。城里人看上去总是在匆匆地赶往他们要去的地方,在商店里他们焦躁不安地指望店员能马上来为他们服务,或者为了赶快买完东西,用肘来推搡他人。白天吃饭时人们也都匆匆忙忙,这部分地反映出这个国家的生活节奏。人们认为工作时间是宝贵的。在公共用餐场所,人们都等着别人尽快吃完,以便他们也能及时用餐,你还会发现司机开车很鲁莽,人们推搡着在你身边过去。你会怀念微笑、简短的交谈以及与陌生人的随意闲聊。不要觉得这是针对你个人的,这是因为人们都非常珍惜时间,而且也不喜欢他人“浪费”时间到不恰当的地步。

 

许多刚到美国的人会怀念诸如商务拜访等场合开始时的寒暄。他们也会怀念那种一边喝茶或喝咖啡一边进行的礼节性交流,这也许是他们自己国家的一种习俗。他们也许还会怀念在饭店或咖啡馆里谈生意时的那种轻松悠闲的交谈。一般说来,美国人是不会在如此轻松的环境里通过长时间的闲聊来评价他们的客人的,更不用说会在增进相互间信任的过程中带他们出去吃饭,或带他们去打高尔夫球。既然我们通常是通过工作而不是社交来评估和了解他人,我们就开门见山地谈正事。因此,时间老是在我们心中滴滴答答地响着。

 

因此,我们千方百计地节约时间。我们发明了一系列节省劳力的装置;我们通过发传真、打电话或发电子邮件与他人迅速地进行交流,而不是通过直接接触。虽然面对面接触令人愉快,但却要花更多的时间,尤其是在马路上交通拥挤的时候。因此,我们把大多数个人拜访安排在下班以后的时间里或周末的社交聚会上。

 

就我们而言,电子交流的缺乏人情味与我们手头上事情的重要性之间很少有或完全没有关系。在有些国家,如果没有目光接触,就做不成大生意,这需要面对面的交谈。在美国,最后协议通常也需要本人签字。然而现在人们越来越多地在电视屏幕上见面,开远程会议不仅能解决本国的问题,而且还能通过卫星解决国际问题。

 

美国无疑是一个电话王国。几乎每个人都在用电话做生意、与朋友聊天、安排或取消社交约会、表达谢意、购物和获得各种信息。电话不但能免去走路之劳,而且还能节约大量时间。其部分原因在于这样一个事实:美国的电话服务是一流的,而邮政服务的效率则差一些。

 

有些初来美国的人来自文化背景不同的其他国家,在他们的国家,人们认为工作太快是一种失礼。在他们看来,如果不花一定时间来处理某件事的话,那么这件事就好像是无足轻重的,不值得给予适当的重视。 因此,人们觉得用的时间长会增加所做事情的重要性。但在美国,能迅速而又成功地解决问题或完成工作则被视为是有水平、有能力的标志。通常情况下,工作越重要,投入的资金、精力和注意力就越多,其目的是“使工作开展起来”。

 

 

 

             Unit One  Section B

    Culture Shock

1 Reading Skill

Reading for the Main Ideas in Paragraphs

Introduction:

The particular reading skill introduced for this unit is reading for the main idea in a paragraph. This skill is one of the most useful reading skills students can develop. Finding the main idea is necessary for the understanding of a piece of writing.

1) The main idea of a paragraph is usually stated by one of the sentences in the paragraph. The main idea sentence is commonly known as “a topic sentence” or “a topic statement”. It may appear in one of several places in the paragraph. Most frequently the first sentence of a paragraph states the main idea, as is clear from the following example taken from Reading Passage A:

Consequently, we work hard at the task of saving time. We produce a steady flow of labor-saving devices; we communicate rapidly through faxes, phone calls or emails rather than through personal contacts, which though pleasant, take longer—especially given our traffic-filled streets. We, therefore, save most personal visiting for after work hours or for social weekend gatherings. (Para.5, Reading Passage A, Unit 1)

Main idea: We work hard at the task of saving time.

In this paragraph the main idea appears in the beginning of the paragraph.

 

    2) However, the main idea sentence may also appear in other places: in the middle or at the end of a paragraph. Look at two more examples taken from Reading Passage A:

(1) “We are slaves to nothing but the clock,” it has been said. Time is treated as if it were something almost real. We budget it, save it, waste it, steal it, kill it, cut it, account for it; we also charge for it. It is a precious resource. Many people have a rather acute sense of the shortness of each lifetime. Once the sands have run out of a person’s hourglass, they cannot be replaced. We want every minute to count. (Para. 2, Reading Passage A, Unit 1)         

 

Main Idea: It (= Time) is a precious resource.

    In this paragraph the main idea appears in the middle of the paragraph.

 

(2) Americans believe no one stands still. If you are not moving ahead, you are falling behind. This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring. Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor. (Para. 1, Reading Passage A, Unit 1)   

Main Idea: Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor.

In this paragraph the main idea appears at the end of this paragraph.

 

Please notice that sometimes there is no sentence in the paragraph which directly states the main idea. That doesn’t mean that there isn’t a main idea in the paragraph, only the main idea is implied. In these cases you have to write a sentence to sum up the main idea of the paragraph.

It was late afternoon when the chairman of our Bangkok-based company gave me an assignment: I would leave the next day to accompany an important Chinese businessman to tourist sites in northern Thailand. Silently angry, I stared at my desk. the stacks of paper bore witness to a huge amount of work waiting to be done, even though I had been working seven days a week. How will I ever catch up? I wondered.

Main Idea: I got an assignment and felt angry because a huge amount of work still has to be done.

 

For your practice:

XIV. For each of the following paragraphs, write down the main idea in your own words in the blank space. (Page16, Section B, Book 1)

1.     Do you think studying in a different country is something that sounds very exciting? Like many young people who leave home to study in another country, do you think you would have lots of desirable fun? Certainly, it is a new experience, which brings the opportunity of discovering fascinating things and a feeling of freedom. In spite of these advantages, however, there are also some challenges you will encounter. Because your views may clash with the different beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that exist in different countries, you may have difficulty adjusting to a new culture and to those parts of the culture not familiar to you. This is culture shock. Evidently, at least four essential stages of culture-shock adjustment occur. (Para.1)     

 

Main idea: Studying in a different country is a new experience, but there are also some challenges. 

 

2. The first stage is called “the honeymoon”. In this stage, you feel excitement about living in a different place, and everything seems to be marvelous. You like everything, and everybody seems to be so nice to you. Also, the amusement of life in a new culture seems as though it will have no ending. (Para. 2)

Main idea : The first stage of culture-shock adjustment is “the honeymoon”.

 

3. Eventually, however, the second stage of culture shock appears. This is the “hostility stage”. You begin to notice that not everything is as good as you had originally thought it was. You become tired of many things about the new culture. Moreover, people don’t treat you like a guest anymore. Everything that seemed to be so wonderful at first is now awful, and everything makes you feel distressed and tired. (Para. 3)     

 

Main idea: The second stage of culture shock, “the hostility stage”, eventually occurs.

 

4. Usually at this point in your adjustment to a new culture, you devise some defense mechanisms to help you cope and to protect yourself against the effects of culture shock. One type of coping mechanism is called “repression”. This happens when you pretend that everything is acceptable and that nothing bothers you. Another type of defense mechanism is called “regression”. This occurs when you start to act as if you are younger than you actually are; you act like a child. You forget everything, and sometimes you become careless and irresponsible. The third kind of defense mechanism is called “isolation”. You would rather be home alone, and you don’t want to communicate with anybody. With isolation, you try to avoid the effects of culture shock, or at least that’s what you think. Isolation is one of the worst coping mechanisms you can use because it separates you from those things that could really help you. The last type of defense mechanism is called “rejection”. With this coping mechanism, you think you don’t need anybody. You feel you are coping fine alone, so you don’t try to ask for help. (Para. 4)

 

Main idea : At this point, some defense mechanisms are devised to protect yourself against the effects of culture shock.    

 

5. After you deal with your hostile feelings, recognition of the temporary nature of culture shock begins. Then you come to the third stage called “recovery”. In this stage, you start feeling more positive, and you try to develop comprehension of everything you don’t understand. The whole situation starts to become more favorable; you recover from the symptoms of the first two stages, and you adjust yourself to the new norms, values, and even beliefs and traditions of the new country. You begin to see that even though the distinctions of the culture are different from your own, it has elements that you can learn to appreciate. (Para. 6, Reading Passage B, Unit 1)    

 

Main idea : The third stage of culture shock adjustment, “recovery”, starts.

2. Text Reading

1) desirable (L.3)

For this job it is desirable to know something about medicine. (a. 令人向往的,合意的,值得有的)

干这项工作最好懂点医学。

Notice: In the structure “It is desirable that ...”, the verb in the that-clause is usually in the subjunctive form or “should” is used before the main verb.

他要是能参加此次会议,是最好不过的了。

It is most desirable that he__________________. (should) attend the convention

    明智的做法是她立即离开公司。

  It is desirable that she leave the company immediately.

2) In spite of (L.4)

  In spite of great efforts we failed to carry our plans through. regardless of

尽管我们作出了巨大努力,我们还是没能完成计划。

  He always did well at school _______ having to do part-time jobs every now and then.

  a. in case of    b. in spite of   c. regardless of     d. on account of

  Key:  b.    虽然他有时得干点兼职,但他的学习却一直很好。

温故知新:despite  prep.

He went to work sick, and despite nasty weather. (Unit 3-A, Book I)

他生病或气候恶劣时也坚持上班,几乎从不缺勤。

3) have difficulty in doing (L.7) 

他的英语很糟糕, 我很难听懂他。

His English is very bad and I have great difficultytrouble (in) understanding him.

   Notice: If “have difficulty” is followed directly by a noun phrase, the preposition “with” is used and the preposition can never be omitted in this case.

这孩子好像在英语语法方面有许多困难。

The child seems to_____________________ . have a lot of difficulty with English grammar

4) familiar (L.8)

词语辨析:be familiar with  & be familiar to

familiar to: If sth. is familiar to you, it is well known to you or you often experience/encounter it.

familiar with: If you are familiar with sth., you have a good knowledge of it or you know it in detail.

他谈论其他文化时仿佛他对其他文化比对自己的文化还要熟悉。

He talked of other cultures as if they were more familiar to him than his own.

    He talked of the other cultures as if he were more familiar with them than his own.

Larkin not only speaks Chinese well, but also is familiar _____ early Chinese history.

         a. to      b. with  

Key: b 

5) evidently (L.8)

  Evidently he was sensitive to the topic of operation. (ad. obviouslyclearly)

     显然他对做手术这个话题很敏感。

那个陌生人走近话筒,显然想发言

  The stranger approached the microphone,____________.

evidently intending to speak

6) moreover (L.16)

furthermore (L53)

      骑自行车是一项很好的运动,此外,它还不污染空气。

    Bicycling is a good exercise, moreover/ furthermore it doesn’t pollute air. ( ad. in addition)

  今晚你不能出去,因为外面有暴风雨,另外你的作业还没做完。

You cannot go out because it is a stormy night, moreover, your homework hasn’t been done.

7) distressed (L.18)

The mother was distressed by her baby's illness.  (v. 痛苦,苦恼)

母亲为她孩子的病感到苦恼。

  The mother was in great distress when her baby became ill.  (n. 痛苦,苦恼)

当她的小孩子生病的时候,母亲非常苦恼。

词语辨析:

distress指“精神上悲痛或造成痛苦的原因”,含有病痛、烦恼、忧伤等引起的身心紧张或压抑。

suffering指“身体或精神上的痛苦”, 着重“对痛苦的感觉和忍受”, 一般用于人;

His wild behavior was a great distress to his family.

他的放荡的行为使他家人极为烦恼。

His wound caused him great suffering.

他的伤使他深受痛苦。

8) 原句:You would rather be home alone, and you don’t want to communicate with anybody. (L.25-26) 你宁可一个人呆在家里,也不愿和任何人交流。

   句型: would rather…  宁愿….

   用法:1)后接无to 动词原形作谓语;

           Which would you rather have, tea or coffee?

            您愿意喝茶还是喝咖啡?

         2) 其否定式在动词原形前加not 构成;

           I’d very much rather not leave you here.

            我非常不愿意把你留在这儿。

         3)接从句时,从句中的谓语用虚拟语气(过去时或过去完成时)

           I would rather you did nothing about it now.

关于那件事,我宁愿你什么都不管。

 9)  favorable (L.39)

   The bank will lend you money on very favorable terms.   a. 有帮助的,适宜的)

       银行将以非常优惠的条件借钱给你。

       我一直听到赞扬你工作的话。

I have been hearing favorable accounts of your work.   (a. 赞同的)

10) appreciate (L.43)

经过一年的辛苦工作之后,我们都十分珍惜这个假期。

We all appreciate the holiday after a year of hard work.  v. 欣赏)

Notice: If it is followed by a verb, the verb should be used in the form of gerund.

   appreciate (one’s) doing sth

我们恭候佳音。

 We shall appreciate hearing from you again.

11) acquisition (L.47)

language acquisition   (n. 获得,得到)

语言习得  
孩子们在掌握基本技能方面进步很快。

The children progressed quickly_______________.

(in the acquisition of basic skills)

温故知新:

      Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  (AIDS)  (Unit 5-A, Book 1)

      获得性免疫缺损综合症  (艾滋病)

她认真学习而精通英语。

She acquired a knowledge of the English by careful study.

 12alleviate  (L.47)          

The fund is to alleviate the distress among the flood victims. (v. relieve 减轻,缓解)

这基金是用于赈济水灾灾民的

这药片可减轻背痛。

This pill can alleviate the pain on your back.

 

 Section B

 文化冲击

你认为在异国留学是一件听上去非常令人兴奋的事情吗?你会像许多离家去另一个国家学习的年轻人一样感觉很有趣吗?这当然是一种崭新的经历,它会给你带来机会,让你发现许多迷人的东西,获得一种自由感。然而,尽管有这些好处,你也会遇到挑战。因为你的观点可能会与存在于不同国家的不同信念、准则、价值观念和传统发生冲突。你也许会感到很难去适应一种新的文化以及该文化中你不熟悉的那些部分。这就是“文化冲击”。人们经历文化冲击的过程至少包括四个主要阶段。

 

第一阶段叫做“蜜月期”。在这一阶段,你会感到生活在一个不同国度里很兴奋,而且每一样东西看上去都妙不可言。你什么都喜欢,而且好像每个人都对你很好。另外,新的文化中的生活乐趣好像是无穷无尽的。

 

然而,文化冲击的第二阶段终究会出现,这就是“敌对期”。你开始注意到并不是每样东西都像你原先认为的那样好。你会对新的文化里的许多东西感到厌倦。此外,人们也不再把你当作一个客人来对待了。所有最初看上去非常美好的东西现在变得让人讨厌了,而且每一样东西都使你感到苦恼和厌倦。

 

通常,在你适应一种新文化的这一阶段中,你会想出一些防卫性的办法来帮助你应付难关,保护自己免受文化冲击的影响。其中一种办法叫做“压抑法”。当你假装所有的东西都可以接受,没有什么东西令你感到烦恼的时候,你就是在运用压抑法。另一种防卫性办法称做“倒退法”。当你的行为举止开始显得比你实际年龄要小的时候,你就是在运用这种办法。这时,你的行为举止像一个小孩。你把什么都忘掉了,而且有时你会变得粗心大意,不负责任。第三种防卫性办法叫做“孤立法”。你宁可一个人呆在家里,不想和任何人交流。你想把自己封闭起来以避免文化冲击的影响,至少你是这样认为的。孤立法也许是人们用来对付文化冲击的最糟糕的办法之一,因为你把那些能真正帮助你的东西和你隔离开来了。最后一种防卫性办法叫做“排斥法”。这一办法让你觉得自己不需要任何人帮助。你觉得你可以独自把事情处理好,所以你就不想求助于人。你在敌意阶段使用的这些办法并不能解决问题。如果你仅仅是偶尔运用一下其中一个应付办法来帮助你生存下去,这也无妨。但是你必须谨慎。这些办法可能会真的使你受到伤害,因为它们会阻碍你对新的文化做出必要的调整。

 

在克服了自己的敌对情绪后,你就会开始认识到文化冲击的短暂性。然后你就会步入被称为“恢复期”的第三阶段。在这个阶段,你开始变得积极起来,而且你会努力去理解所有你不理解的东西。整个形势开始变得对你有利了,你会从前面两个阶段出现的症状中恢复过来。而且你开始使自己适应新的准则、新的价值观念,乃至这个新的国家的各种信念和传统。你开始明白,虽然这种新的文化的特点和你自己国家的文化特点有所不同,但其中也必定有值得你学习和欣赏的东西。

 

文化冲击的最后一个阶段被称为“适应期”。在这个阶段,你真正达到了感觉良好的境界,因为你已经学到了很多东西,已经能理解这种新的文化了。最初使你感到不舒服或陌生的东西,现在已成了你能理解的东西。这种理解会减轻你的许多压力。现在你感到自在了,你已经适应了新的文化。

 

文化冲击是生活在异国他乡的人无法避免的东西。当你在经历文化冲击的这四个阶段时,它似乎并不是一件有益的事。然而,当你完全适应了某一种新的文化时,你会更加充分地喜爱这种文化的。你学会了如何和他人交流,而且还了解了不同文化背景下人们的大量生活情况。此外,了解其他各种文化,以及懂得当你身处其中时如何去适应所受到的冲击,可以帮助你更好地了解自己。

 

 
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