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新视野大学英语读写教程第一册课文学习辅导  

2010-01-05 21:06:15|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                       Unit 10    Section A    Being Honest and Open

1.  Words and phrases

1) demonstrated (L. 4):

The amount of sickness in this district__________________________(说明这里水污染太严重了. demonstrates that the water pollution levels are too high (v. show clearly by giving proof or example)

老师演示了如何做这个实验。The teacher demonstrated how to make the experiment.

2) sell out to (L. 6):

We hate those whose principles sell out to a variety of tempting attractions (betray to……而背叛)

我们憎恨那些经不起各种诱惑而出卖原则的人.

He sold out to ambition and the desire for wealth.

他为财富而背叛了自己的抱负和志愿。

They spoke of people who sold out to the enemy (let down one’s cause to someone)

The leaders of the trade union were charged with ______________________(背叛自己的立场,倒向顾主). selling out to the employer (let down one’s side to someone)

3) in short supply (L. 8):

_________________(这些货正短缺); therefore, the price will be high. These goods are in short supply (lacking, not quite available)

目前广大的农村地区缺乏合格的英语老师。Qualified English teachers are in short supply in the broad areas of the countryside.

类似表达:

in demand:  Men to shovel snow were in demand after the snow storm. 暴风雨后需要铲雪的工人。

4) scarce (L. 8):

好水果现在不多,所以价格贵。Good fruit is scarce and costs a lot.

百年以上的旧椅子不多了。Chairs that are older than one hundred years are scarce.

常用搭配:

a rare book  珍本书

a rare occurrence罕有的事件

a rare insect 珍奇的昆虫

5) the real bottom line (L. 9):

__________________________(抑制这种传染性疾病蔓延的关键) is to find out both its cause and its vehicle (传染媒介) as soon as possible. The bottom line of overcoming the spread of this infectious disease (the most important point)

细节就不要说了,说说关键的吧。Forget the detail and give me the bottom line.

6) demand of (L. 9):

这门课程要求学生用功去学。Hard work will be demanded of students in this course. (v. expect sth from sb. )

人口的增长对电力供应的需求太高了。The increased population is demanding too much of the electricity supply. (v. expect sth from sth.)

7) apply (L. 10):

我们应该将课堂上学到的东西应用到社会实践中。We should apply what we have learned in class to the social practice.v. use for a purpose 应用)

这些规则既适用于管理人员又适用于普通职工。The rules apply to the management and the staff as well.v. have an effect on

温故知新:

Fish farming is very efficient: producing a kilogram of fish utilizes(makes use of) less than 2 kilograms of feed, but it takes 2.2 kilograms of feed to produce 1 kilogram of chicken.(Unit 9--B Book 1)

8) consists of (L. 10):

类似表达:

be made up of

be composed of

野餐有鸡肉、色拉、蔬菜和饮料。The picnic dinner consisted of chicken, salad, vegetables, cake and drinks.

9) stand firmly for (L. 12):

_________________________(在文艺界,我们坚决主张) the practice of letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend. In the world of art and literature, we stand strongly for (believe)

      他主张就业平等。He stands for equality in employment.(support, advocate)

      10) ensuring (L. 14)

     词语辨析:assured (L. 18)

ensure:指使某行为或某事件的结果得以保证

assure:既可表示确证某事,也可表示使某人确信:“assure sb. that clause..”, “assure sb. of sth.”

    The doctor assured him that his child would recover from the illness. 医生担保说他的孩子会康复的。

    To ensure the child’s quick recovery, the doctor gave him an antibiotic.为使这孩子尽快恢复,医生给了他一剂抗菌素。

     (1) The fact that the hospital had a good reputation _______ him that his child would be well taken care of. assured

    (2) Please __________ that all lights are switched off at night. ensure

    (3) This medicine will _________ you a good night’s sleep. ensure

    (4) He ________ her of his faith in her. assured

(5) This contract ________ the company’s profit this month. assures

11) protested (L. 20):

他们勇敢地抗议这一武装干涉。They protested courageously against this armed intervention.(v. express their feelings of disagreement, annoyance, unfairness)

他们对旅馆粗劣的伙食表示抗议。They protested about the bad food at the hotel.( complain about)

她反对别人称她为小姑娘。She protested at being called a little girl. (object to)

12) concede (L. 25):

      The master conceded 10 points to me at the start of the game, but, even so, he beat me. (v. yield)

      比赛开始时, 那位大师让了我10个点,可即使那样,我还是输了。

      在结果出来以后他终于让步了。

      He finally conceded after the result was disclosed.

13) credit (L. 26):

   His art of running his business is to lose no time in giving his employees credit for their wonderful work. (n. praise)

     他的生意经就是不失时机地表扬那些工作出色的雇员

      The young boy took/got all the credit for drawing the picture even though his teacher had done most of the work. (be praised) 小男孩因画了这幅画而受到许多表扬, 尽管这画多半是他老师画的。

 

 

14) genuine (L. 36):

This picture has proved to be genuine not a copy. (a. real 真正的; 真心的)

这幅画经证明是真的,不是复制品。

He seems to have a genuine interest in helping the children.

他看来真心想帮助孩子们。

常见搭配:

比加索的亲笔画 genuine painting by Picasso

纯银genuine silver

真钱 genuine money

真钻石genuine diamond

真皮genuine leather

由衷的悲伤 a genuine sorrow

真心热爱音乐 a genuine passion for music

反义词:fake, forged 

15external (L. 37):

       常见搭配:

外部的空气  external air

外用 external use

外伤 an external wound

外界 the external world

反义词:internal

16) preserve (L. 38):

      We need to _________________(保护森林). preserve the forest (v. protect)

      We will do everything to _____________(维护和平). preserve peacev. keep…unchanged

      _____________________(他的作品必须保存下来) for our children and grandchildren. His works must be preserved (v. keep)

      People ______________(用盐腌鱼). preserve fish in salt.(v. store)

17) yielding to (L. 46):

Never yield oneself to the mercy of the enemy (vi. give in to)

    不屈服于敌人的怜悯.

      After a fierce fight, the enemy _____________________(向我们投降了). yielded to us ( vi. surrender to sb.)

      ________________________(如果我听从你的意愿), you must respect my feelings. If I yield to your wishes bend one’s will to

 2. Sentence patterns

1) 原句:Integrity is an inner compass for judging your behavior. (L. 7) 正直是判断自身行为的心灵标尺。

 

句型提炼: Sth. is a compass / a good test / the basis fordoingsth. else. 某事/物是(做)……的指南/试金石/基础。 (划线部分也可用以下短语: a key / secret / trick to a guarantee / the art / bottom line / purpose of )

应用:

 路遥知马力。Distance is a good test for knowing a horse’s strength.    

日久见人心。Time is a good compass for judging a person’s heart.

建立在平等、信任、关爱基础上的关系是幸福婚姻的关键。 Relationship built upon equality, trust, concern and affection is the key to a happy marriage.

 

 

 

2)  

 

 

 

原句: If each of us hires people who are smaller than we are, we shall become a company of dwarfs. But if each of us hires people who are bigger than we are, Ogilvy & Mather will become a company of giants. 如果我们每个人都聘用比我们差的人, 那么我们的公司就会变成一家矮子公司。但是如果我们每个人都聘用比我们强的人, 那么我们的公司就会变成一家巨人公司。

     

句型提炼: If, sb. / sth. will. But if, sb. / sth. will. 如果……那么……,但是如果……那么……

应用

如果一个人一遇到困难就放弃努力,那么他将一事无成,但是如果一个人总是迎难而上,那么他终将取得成功。If one gives up trying whenever he meets with difficulties, he will never amount to anything. But if one always faces up to his difficulties, he will surely make it/win the day in the end.

如果你没有准备好,机会来了你也抓不住。如果你做好了充分的准备,你就不会让任何一个在你生活中出现的机会从你身边溜走。If you are not ready, you can’t grab/seize/catch the opportunity that comes your way. But if you are fully prepared, you will not allow any opportunity that arises in your life to pass away.

      

 

 

 

3) 原句: People who lack genuine core values rely on external factors their looks or status in order to feel good about themselves. (L. 36) 缺乏实实在在内涵的人会去依靠外部因素如长相或地位来保持良好的自我感觉

 

句型提炼: Sb. that / Anyone who lacks sth. / fails to do sth. relies / counts / depends on sth. else in order to (目的状语). 缺乏/未能做某事的人会去依靠其他的东西 —如…… —来达到……目的。

应用:

一些缺乏良心的人会依靠一些非法的手段如坑蒙拐骗来积累财富。Some people who lack a conscience/fail to have a conscience rely on some illegal methods---cheat or fraud ---to accumulate wealth/to get rich.

勤能补拙。这句谚语的意思是指一个缺乏天赋的人可以依靠其它方式如勤奋或恒心获得成功。Diligence redeems stupidity. This proverb means that a person who lacks talent/gift can depend on other methods—diligence or persistence—to achieve success.

3. Useful expressions

1) 要么要么,没有折中办法                    either…or…, no middle point L.1

2) 为贪图舒适而放弃立场                        to sell out to convenience (L.6)

3) 短缺                                        to be in short supply (L.8)

4) 底线                                        the bottom line (L. 9)

5) 由三个重要原则构成                          to consist of three key principles (L. 10)

6) 坚定信念; 坚持主张                                   to stand firmly for the convictions (L. 12)

7) 加入医疗队                                                to be on the medical team (L. 13)

8) 数清点手术器械                                         to account for the surgical instruments (L. 15)

9) 为病人想一想                                            to think of the patient (L. 21)

10) 表扬那些值得表扬的人                             to give others credit that is rightfully theirs (L.26)

11) 阐明观点                                                  to clarify the point (L.28)

12) 自我感觉良好                                           to feel good about oneself (L.37)

13) 设法掩饰个人的某些方面                         to engage in a personal cover-up of areas (L. 40)

14) 向种种诱惑低头                                       to yield to the tempting attractions (L.46)

15) 获得成功                                                  to win the day (L.46)

16)不必为自己过去的所作所为而抱憾             without having to check your tracks in a rear-view mirror (L.47)

4. Summary of the text

Being honest and open is the most important thing for you. You are (1)_______ honest or you are not. There is no (2)_______ point. This truth is clearly demonstrated by your life (3)_______ and you do not need to talk about it. Honesty refers to (4)_______ that involves having a personal  (5)_______ of morality and boundaries that does not sell (6)_______ to convenience and that is not (7)_______ to the situation (8)_______ hand. It is an inner (9)_______ for judging your behavior. A good (10)_______ for this value is to apply the “Integrity Triangle”, which (11)_______ of three key principles. They are: (12)_______firmly for your convictions when (13)_______with personal pressure; Always give others (14)_______ that is rightfully theirs; be honest and open (15)_______ who you (16)_______ are. Besides, Self-respect and a clear (17)_______ are two powerful  (18)_______of integrity and are also the basis (19)_______ enriching your relationship (20)___ ____others. A life of principle, of not (21)_______ to the tempting attractions of an easy morality will always (22)_______ the day.

(1) either, (2) middle, (3)style, (4) integrity, (5)standard, (6) out, (7) relative, (8) at, (9) compass, (10) test, (11) consists, (12) stand, (13) confronted, (14) credit, (15) about, (16)really, (17) conscience, (18) components, (19)for, (20) with, (21) yielding, (22) win

 

               Section B  Web Site Resources: The Best Aid for Cheating?

1) San Francisco is a Californian port city on the US Pacific coast. The city has a population of over 1.6 million, 30 percent of which is Asian.(L.1)

2) CNN stands for Cable News Network, an AOL Time-Warner company located in Atlanta, Georgia with offices worldwide. CNN is a world leader in online news and information with more than 4,000 news professionals gathering global news. It reporting strongly reflects American views of the world. (L.1)

3) ultimate (L. 2):

 His ultimate goal at present

is to learn the scientific knowledge well so as to build his hometown better in the future. (adj. most important, highest)

他目前最大的目标是为将来更好地建设家乡而学好科学技术。

He has done stupid things before, but looking for the escaping gas with a match really was ______________(傻得不能再傻了). the ultimate silliness

_______________(他的最终目的) is to be come a doctor. His ultimate purpose (adj. last, final) 

4) fake (L. 4):

      The picture was faked by sticking together two photos. (v. make or copy to trick)

这张照片是把两张照片拼在一起伪造的.

 

 

     

这项链看起来像真的,但实际是赝品。The necklace looks like a real one, but it is a fake. (n. sth. that is not real)

毋庸质疑,假冒商品会危害消费者和社会。It goes without saying that fake commodities/products do great harm to consumers and society. (adj. made and intended to deceive)

反义词:genuine

      

 

 

 

 

5) for free (L. 6):

Believe it or not, I got this portable computer for free. (without charge or cost)

信不信由你,我这台便携式电脑是免费得来的。

People living in that city ___________________________(可以免费乘坐公交车) . can use their public transportation for free (free of charge)

6) Hamlet is the famous tragedy written by Shakespeare. Hamlet, a Danish prince encountered by his father’s ghost, is considering getting even with his uncle and mother for his father’s murder when a trick set up by his uncle leads to the death of tree of them.

7) dilemma (L. 9):

___________________(医生的难处)was whether he should tell the patient the truth. The doctor’s dilemma (n. a difficult choice between two (bad) things)

她处于进退维谷的境地,不知道应该继续读书还是找份工作。She was in a dilemma as to whether to stay at school or get a job.

8) hand over (L. 8):

     罪犯被移交给当地警方。 The criminal was handed over to the local police. (give to another)

     请把这些文件尽快交给校长。Please hand these documents over to the principal at the earliest possibility. (deliver)

      

 

9) do/turn the trick (L. 12):

       Jim was not passing in maths, ____________________________(但他加把劲学习,结果及格了). but he studied harder and that did the trick (accomplish what is desired)

       The director of the company wasn’t inclined to accept our suggestion at first. I think it was our enthusiasm that turned the trick. 公司总裁最初没有采纳我们的建议。 我认为是我们的热忱终于打动了他。(have a required effect)

10) fee (L. 16):

      常见搭配:

      学费  the tuition fee

会费the membership fee

医疗费 medical fees

入场费 the entrance/admission fee

律师费a lawyer’s fee

医师的诊疗费a doctor’s fee

咨询费fee for consultation

俱乐部入会费a club fee

比较:出租车(公共汽车)费 a taxi(bus) fare 单程票价 a single fare,飞机票价

 the air fare

11)

 

hail as (L. 23):

Lu Xun has been hailed as one of the greatest Chinese writers of his contemporaries. (recognize as )

鲁迅被称赞为他同代人中最伟大的中国作家之一。

彼得把一家人从燃烧的房屋中救出来,市长称赞他是一位英雄。The mayor hailed Peter as a hero for saving a family from a burning building.

12)figure out (L.25):  

This old mother could not figure out why her reporter son wanted to go to Israel. ( understand)

这位老妈妈怎么也弄不明白她当记者的儿子为什么要去以色列。

我正在计算去夏威夷旅行的费用。I am figuring out the expenses of a trip to Hawaii. (calculate)  

    我们想出了一个节省旅游开支的办法。We figured out a way to save money on travel costs. (discover)

13) author-ship (L. 25):

 

 

 

-ship(1)  名词后缀构成抽象名词,表示身份、资格、职位、权限等

kingship 王位、王权              citizenship 公民身份

leadership 领导                professorship 教授职位

studentship 学生身份              membership 成员资格

-ship(2) 名词后缀构成抽象名词,表示情况、状态、性质、关系等。

friendship 友谊、友好              comradeship 同志关系

hardship 苦难、受苦              scholarship 学问、学识

partnership 合伙关系               relationship 亲属关系

-ship(3) 名词后缀构成抽象名词,表示技艺、技能、……法、……术等。

airmanship 飞行技术           salesmanship 销售术         

workmanship 手艺                            horsemanship 骑马术

14) authentic (L. 25):

       常见搭配:

莎士比亚的亲笔信an authentic letter by Shakespeare  

一位名画家的亲笔画the authentic painting by a famous painter

一块真正的手工制的中国地毯an authentic, Chinese carpet made by hand

When you say a painting is a fake, you mean________________(它不是真迹). it is not authentic

The geologists declared the fragment ______________________(是一块稀有化石的真实样品). to be an authentic specimen of rare fossil

那是毕家索的真迹还是现代赝品?Is that an authentic painting from Picasso, or a modern copy?

温故知新:

People who lack genuine core values rely on external factors—their looks or status—in order to feel good about themselves( Unit 10--A, Book 1)

genuine: 强调这件物品不是伪造的或掺了假的。

authentic: 强调证明一件物品有与其称呼相符的正式证据或证书。

15)

 

 

 

 

 

 

get off (L.28):

That intelligence managed to _____________________(弄走了公司的内部政策) through the secretary. get the inner policy of the company off ( remove sth. from sb.)

There are too many computers in this little room. _________________(请把那台旧的搬出去) . Please get that old one off. (remove sth. from sth.

      

 

16) intellectual (L.131): 

     常见搭配:

知识分子家庭    an intellectual family

     智力活动        intellectual activities

     智力课程        intellectual subjects

     用脑的职业      an intellectual career

     知识产权        intellectual property

 

 

17) be inclined to (L. 34):

_______________(我更倾向于认为) that she has done a better job in the oral competition than any of you. I am inclined to think ( tend to)

       我倾向于持相反的观点。I’m inclined to take the opposite point of view.

18) notion (L. 35): 

_________________(人们常常认为) is that red hair goes with a quick temper. One common notion (n. belief)

This article deals with ______________________(现代人对因特网的一些看法). some modern notions about the Internet (n. opinion)

He__________________(不理解)what I mean. has no notion of (n. idea)

19) incidence (L. 36):

吸烟者比不吸烟者肺癌的发病率高。Smokers have a higher incidence of lung cancer than nonsmokers. (n. range of happening or influence)

这一地区的交通事故发生率很高。This area has a high incidence of traffic accidents.

 

      

20) make the most of (L. 39): 

他利用在夏威夷的闲暇充分游山玩水。

He made the most of his spare time in Hawaii touring the scenic spots. (get the best use or greatest gain from)

一个人应该充分利用上大学的机会积累知识,训练技能。One should make the most of the opportunity of attending college to store knowledge and practice skills.

 

 

21) cheat-proof (L. 40):

   -proof: 形容词后缀,表示防……的、不透……的

防毒气的gas-proof                         不透气的airproof  

防水的waterproof                         防雨的rainproof

防烟的smoke-proof                        防火的fireproof

抗寒的cold-proof                          隔音的soundproof

防炸弹的 bombproof                         不透光的lightproof

22) transform:

她发誓要把她儿子从罪犯改变成对社会有用的人。She made up her mind to transform her son from a criminal into a useful man to society. (v. change completely)

   新的公路建成之后,这个小镇就变成了一个大城市。When the new road was built, the small town was transformed into a large city.

   温故知新:Using fossil fuels for energy has not altered very much but wind energy use is increasing significantly. ( Unit 9--B, Book 1)

 

 

 
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