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新视野大学英语读写教程第一册课文学习辅导   

2010-01-04 21:03:13|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 5

Section A  The Battle Against AIDS

1.  Words and phrases

1. infect     (L.3)

The disease infected her eyes, and she became blind.

这种病使她眼睛受感染,并致使她双目失明。(vt. put disease into the body of

常用搭配

be infected with have or carry (a disease) 感染(疾病)   

血检表明这个人染上了艾滋病病毒。

The blood test shows that the man was infected with the HIV virus.

2. constitute   (L.6) constitute:

      Real familiarity with a 3,000 word vocabulary constitutes a good base for further English.

      真正掌握了3000单词,就具备了进一步学习英语的基础。(vt. make up; form)

      一周有七天。

Seven days constitute a week.

12位科学家组成一个研究小组研究空气污染。

      Twelve scientists constituted a research group to study air pollution.

3. implement  (L.9)

Money is needed to implement our child-care programs.

要实施儿童保健项目,需要资金。(vt. put into practice)

政府在实施扶贫政策。

The government is implementing its program of helping the poor.  

 4. in place of

John is to attend the meeting in place of the manager, who has come down with a bad cold

   约翰代替经理参加会议,因为经理患了重感冒。(instead of)

   我们不去作报告,而是放场电影

In place of a lecture we will be showing a film.  

5. emerge     (L.10)

   Richard was waiting outside the door as Mary emerged.

玛丽出现时,理查德正在门外等候。(vi. come or appear)

在发现这一有趣的现象之后,许多想法都有可能出现。

Many ideas are likely to emerge after such an interesting finding.

词语辨析:

appear 指“出现; 呈现”或指(在戏剧、影片中)出场;登台

emerge指“(从里面或隐藏处)出现,浮现,露出”或“(尤指调查后)显露,露出真相”

Please choose the correct word for the following sentences.

The sun _____________ from behind the clouds. (emerged/emerges)

He has ______________ in dozens of films. ( appeared)

It later __________ that the driver of the car had been drunk. (emerged)

If I don’t _________ by 7 o’clock, I won’t be coming at all.  (appear)

6. suffer from  (L.13)

      Within a few days, she has become seriously ill, suffering from great pain

只几天时间, 她的病情加重了,她被折磨得痛苫不堪。(be badly influenced by)

他被诊断为染了艾滋病。

      He was diagnosed as suffering from AIDS.

7. illustrate    (L.36)

  The case illustrates that women can do much better than men in some fields. 

  这个事例说明了妇女在某些领域可以比男性干得出色得多。

( vt. add pictures to (sth, written); show the meaning of (sth.) by giving pictures

examples)

  我再举个例子说明这个难点。

  Let me give another example to illustrate this difficult point.

8. establish    (L.42)

  The company has established a new system for dealing with complaints.

  这家公司为应付投诉制订了一套新方法。( v. to set up; begin.)

  我们大学建于1907年。

  Our university was established in 1907.

9. at risk     (L.47)

   The disease is spreading, and all the children are at risk.

   这种疾病正在蔓延,所有的儿童都有被感染上的危险。(in danger

   如果你不戒烟,你的将来就有危险。

   Your future is at risk if you don’t stop smoking.

  

10. emphasize   (L.52)

       Robert emphasized the difference between the interests of the single person and those of the community.

罗伯特强调了个人利益和社区利益的区别。(vtstress sth that is very important

这位官员强调政府将执行这项计划。

     The official emphasized that his government would implement the program.

11. regardless of   (L.53)

         Regardless of whether he is right or wrong, we have to obey his orders.

不管他是对还是错,我们都得服从他的命令。(not consider or be influenced by)

不管天气如何,我们都决定出门。

   We decide to go out regardless of the weather.

12. represent    (L.55)

He got a chance to represent China at the Olympic Games the next year.

他有机会在第二年代表中国参加奥运会。(vt. show; be a sign of; stand for)  

他没有讲清楚绘画的步骤。

He does not clearly represent the stages of painting a picture. (vt. describe)

词语辨析:

represent指“用图画、雕像等表示,描绘,雕出”;

describe指“叙述,描述,描写,形容”

这幅画描绘了纳尔逊之死。

This painting represents the death of Nelson.

警察叫我描述那两名男人的样子。

The police asked me to describe the two men.

13. threaten (L. 56)

       If you threaten me or use any force, I shall inform the police

如果你威胁我或动武的话,我就报警。(v. 扬言;威胁)

常用搭配

threaten to do sth. 扬言要……

threaten sb. into doing 胁迫某人做某事  

The father threatened to punish the child if the child did not obey his orders.

父亲威胁说要是孩子不听话,就要给以惩罚。

每当他们争吵时,维拉总扬言要出走。

Every time they quarrel, Vera always threatens to leave.

抢劫犯胁迫那个老太太拿出所有的钱。

The robber threatened the old woman into taking out all her money.

14. sign up (for sth.) (L.59)

   I've signed up to take a multimedia training course at the local college.

我已报名在当地学院学一门多媒体培训课程。(sign an agreement to take part in sth.)

他说服公司与这位歌手签约。

He persuaded the company to sign up the singer.

 2. Sentence patterns

1) 原句 Despite such alarming numbers, the federal and the state governments have been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of AIDS.(L. 8)

尽管数量大得惊人,但各州和联邦政府在实施防止艾滋病的计划方面行动迟缓。

句型提炼: Despite / In spite of sth,  sb / sth  is + adj. in doing …

(: Despite …, sb / sth still does sth else.)

尽管……, 某人 / 某物(仍做……) ……方面……

应用:尽管查得很彻底,但还是找不到玛丽的一点踪迹。

     Despite a thorough investigation, on trace of Mary has been found.

     尽管钢材短缺, 工业产量仍增长了5%

     Despite a shortage of steel, industrial output has increased by five percent.

     尽管功课忙,学习压力重,学生们还是挤出时间参加各种学生活动。

     Despite heavy burden of homework and academic pressure, students still find time for great activity in student affairs..

      

2) 原句 Speak to your community in a way they can hear (L. 31)

        以社区居民能接受的方式与他们交谈。

句型提炼: sb. do sth. in a way+定语从句

         某人以……方式作某事

         the way +定语从句

         以……方式作某事

应用: 我不喜欢你用那样的方式嘲笑他。

      I don’t like the way that you laugh at her.

      我们的老师总是能以我们能接受的方式解释语法。

      Our teacher can always explain the grammar in a way we can understand.

3) 原句: This is an undeclared war that everyone must sign up for in order for us to win.(L. 59)

         这是一场不宣而战的战争, 我们每个人都必须参加,我们只有这样才能取得胜利。

句型提炼:  Sb./Sth. is a(n)… that / who / which / prep. + which…(从句)

某人或某物是……                            

应用:幸福的家庭是一个每位成员给与的多而索取得少的家庭。

     The happy family is one in which each member gives more to others than take from others.

最杰出的领导者是那些能够把无序变为有序, 把不可能变为可能的人。

The greatest leaders are the ones who have the traits to make order from the confusion and get the impossible possible.

 3. Useful expressions

1) 诊断出是()艾滋病    to be diagnosed as (with) AIDS   (L.1)

2)感染了……疾病         to be infected with the HIV virus    (L.3)

3) 成为数量增长最快的患艾滋病的人群

to constitute the fastest growing segment of people with AIDS   (L.6)

4)在实施防治艾滋病蔓延的计划方面行动迟缓

     to be slow in implementing programs   (L.8)   

5) 代替             in place of    (L.9)

6) 防止艾滋病病例数量的增加

        to combat the growing number of AIDS cases  (L.12)

7)缺乏资金         to suffer from a lack of money   (L.13)

8) ……放在周围   to keep books and other publications around   

9) 设立一个称为艾滋病克星的项目   

to establish an “AIDS Busters”program   (L.42)

10) 代表唯一的安全措施   

to represent the only safe measure to guard against the virus  (L.55)

11) 毁掉一代人  to wipe out an entire generation   (L.56)

                        同义词组:to get rid of, to put an end to, to do away with

12) 扬言要……                threaten to do sth. (L.56)

13) 使(做)某事受到干扰     

      to be distracted  from the job that must be done   (L.58)

14) 报名参加                  sign up for sth.  (L.59)

15) 谈论艾滋病令人难受       

      (not)feel comfortable talking about AIDS  (L.60)

4. Summary of the text

Directions: Carefully read the following paragraphs and use the words you’ve learned in Text A to fill the blanks.

Since it was ___(1)______, AIDS has killed thousands of Americans. Women and youth in rural Southern communities are most likely to be ___(2)_____ with AIDS. In__(3)___ of the spread of AIDS and lack of government activity to stop it, some local organizations ___(4)_____. The South Carolina AIDS Education Network formed to help ___(5)____ the number of AIDS cases. In some communities, handing __(6)__ AIDS literature and _____(7)_____ people to read it is not very ____(8)___ because many people cannot read. Besides, AIDS is __(9)_______ fastest among teenagers in the rural South. So these groups have ____(10)_____ some best methods of ___(11)______ the spread of AIDS, ___(12)___ include: speak to your community in a way they can hear; train teenagers to educate their __(13)___; and ____(14)____ “at risk” to include women from different backgrounds and marriage ___15___. In other words, everyone should ____ _16___ ____ the war against AIDS.

 1. diagnosed   2. infected   3. place  4. emerged   5. reduce 

6. out  7. expecting8. effective    9. spreading   10. developed  

11. combating   12. which13. peers   14. redefine   15. status 

16. sign up for 

 

        Section B        The Last Dive at the Olympics

 

1) intense   (L.8)

He felt intense happiness when he knew that he would attend the famous university.

知道自己将上这所名牌大学.他感到非常幸福。  a. strong (in quality or feeling)

天气很冷,她没有出去。

   She did not go out because of the intense cold.

intensely   (L.29)

He sipped his drink, stating intensely at me.  

他呷着饮料,两眼直盯盯地望着我。    ad. strongly (in quality or feeling)

快餐生意竞争十分激烈。

The fast-food business competes intensely.

2) haste (L.11)

   William said that the work must be finished with all possible haste.

威廉说这项工作必须尽快完成。  n. quick movement or action  

匆忙之中.我忘记锁门了。 

   In haste I forgot to lock the door. in a hurry

 

3) approach  (L.11)

As you approached the town the first building you see is the church.

接近那座城镇的时候, 首先看到的就是教堂。   v . come near (to)

假期快来临了。  

   The day of the holiday is approaching.

Workers, above all, should know how to approach the problem correctly.

工人们首先应该知道如何正确处理这个问题。  (v. begin to consider or dead with)

 4) significant  (L.14)

Newspapers print the most significant stories on the first page.

报纸把最重大的新闻放在头版。(a. of major importance

经过长达3个小时的会议之后,政府作出了重大的决定。

After a long meeting of 3 hours, the government has made the most significant decision.

5) I might have endangered other divers’ lives if I had spilled blood in the pool. (L.14)

      要是我的血溅到了游泳池里,就会危及其他跳水选手的生命。

此句为与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句,句型如下:

If + 主语 + had + 动词过去分词,

主语 + would (should, could, might) + have +动词过去分词

      要不是听了你的劝告就犯大错误了。         

I hadn’t taken your advice, I would have made a bad mistake.

多穿点衣服体你就不会着凉了。

You wouldn't have caught cold if you had put on more clothes.

要不是他,我们这场球就输了。

If it hadn’t been for him, we would have lost the game.

 

6) adoption   (L.18)

The boy's adoption by the kind old woman changed his whole life.

这位老妇人收养了这个男孩,从而改变了他一生。   n. 收养)

The teachers are talking about the adoption of a new course of study for the high school.

老师们在讨论给高中学生开设一门新课程。 (n. 采纳)

  adopt v. 收养;采纳     adopted-son 养子

7) call sb. name (L.21)

You can make critical comments about him, but please don't call him names behind his back.

你可以批评他,但请不要在背后说他的坏话。(say bad or unkind things about sb.)

你可以咒骂我,但我不会改变注意。

You can call me names, but I won’t change my mind.

8) prior to (L.24)

Prior to my marriage, I lived in New York; now 1 live in Florida.

我结婚前住在纽约,现在我住在佛罗里达。(before; coming before in time or order    

在你打电话之前,我已经得得到了消息,但还是谢谢你。   

I got the news prior to your call, but thank you just the same.

常用搭配:

 be superior to  较好的,优于……  

be inferior to  劣等的,次于…… 

be senior to   比……年长,比……地位高,或资历深 

be junior to   比……年幼,比……地位低,或资历浅 

9) assist      (L.29)

这些护士帮助医生做手术。

These nurses assisted the doctor in performing the operation.  (vt. help or support)

词语辨析 

assist  v.“帮助”、“协助”,书面用语.指为他人的努力增添力量。多用于个人,表示以助手的地位或下级对上级用可能的方式提供协助。

help v.“帮助”、。援助’,普通用语,但词义较强。强调积极、主动地帮助他人解决实际困难,使受帮助者从中得益。 

尽管他很忙,他还帮助我编报。

Busy as he is, he assists me in editing the paper

他们请她帮助照顾孩子。

They asked her to assist with their children

He helped me enormously with advice on what to read and how to study.

他告诉我阅读什么和如何学习.给了我极大的帮助。

如果你愿意帮忙,我就可以较快地完成这项工作。    l

I could finish the job faster if you would help.

 10)The 1988 Olympics in Seoul, Koreal  L. 33

1988韩国汉城(首尔)运动会。本次运动会是1976年以来,东西方第一次在奥运会上相聚,人们广的焦点又回到参加竟寨的运动员身上,而不是国际间的分歧。用以提高运动成绩的药物也成为本届运动会所关注的一个主题。

11) When my HIV test results returned positive, I was shocked and confused. (L.35)

当我知道自己的艾滋病检验结果是阳性时,我感到震惊和困惑。

return:  系动词,表示回来时的状况,后面可直接接形容词或名词。有类似用法的词还有:come, leave等。

She left her hometown only a girl of 13 but returned a well-trained doctor.

她离开家乡时,只是一个13岁的女孩,可回来时已经是为训练有素的医生了。

旅行回来,他们显得又年轻又强壮。

They returned healthy and strong from their travel.

我们乘兴而来,败兴而归。

We all came here full of hope and left quite disappointed.

12) I couldn’t tell anyone for fear I wouldn’t be able to compete in the Olympics if people learned I was HIV-positive.  (L.37)

我不能把这些告诉任何人,生怕人们一旦知道我是艾滋病毒阳性时,我便不能参加奥运会比赛了。

for fear that: for being afraid, in case  生怕,以免

    for fear of:    由于害怕······,以免 

他早早就出发了,生怕面试迟到。  

He set off very early for fear that he might be late for the interview.

我不敢到哪里去,因为怕被他看见。

for fear of:  I dare not go there for fear of him seeing me.

for fear that : I dare not go there for fear that he will see me.

13) confuse    (L.35)

They had confused me with their conflicting advice.

他们提出的自相矛盾的建议把我给弄糊涂了。

词语辨析confuse  puzzle

confuse  vt. “使混乱”、“混淆”,通常指对人或事物不理解而感到困惑,也指混淆不同的人或事物,这种现象常常是暂时的。

      

puzzle  v.(使)迷惑”、“(使)为难”,指错综复杂的事物使人难于理解领会。虽然当事人对该事物心存好奇,却因无法找出解决方法而感到困惑。

These long personal names have sometimes confused me.

这些长长的人名有时真把我搞糊涂了。

不要把奥地利和澳大利亚弄混了。

Don’t confuse Austria with Australia  

They are puzzling through the new rules of the game.

他们正在对新比赛规则大伤脑筋。

那桩谋杀案继续困惑着警方。

The murder case continued to puzzle the police

我全然不知道该怎么处置它。

I'm utterly puzzled what to do with it

14) compete     (L.37)

Our school competes against /with many other schools in football.

我们学校常同许多其他学校进行足球比赛     vt take part in (a game, match)

她和她姐姐总是争着出风头。

She and her sister are always competing for attention.

15) make it (L.40)

He hadn't been able to make it to our dinner.

他还是没能赶上我们的宴会。(succeed in doing sth)

我相信我有能力做成此事。

I believe that I have the ability to make it.

温故知新:

He almost never missed a day, and would make it to the office even if others could not.

他总是准点到办公室,尽管别人做不到。( Unit3-A, Book)

 

16) quit         (L.48)

   Others made critical comments about him because he quit his duties.

他因为放弃自己的责任而受到批评。    v. stop(doing sth.) and leave 

   知道自己不能获胜, 史蒂夫退出了比赛。

Steve quit when he realized that he could not win.

 

 

 

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